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風邪で寝込む女性
風邪で寝込む女性

ふだんの風邪と比べてみよう。インフルエンザの特徴について

インフルエンザで寝込む女性

インフルエンザは通常の風邪と比較することでその特徴をつかみやすくなると言えます。インフルエンザは風邪と比較した場合にはどのような特徴があるのでしょうか。

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インフルエンザと風邪

風邪で寝込む男

体に悪寒があったり、熱が出たり、筋肉痛が生じるなどすると、「風邪を引いてしまったかな?」と思われるかもしれません。しかし、これらの諸症状が12月から2月にかけてなどインフルエンザが流行している季節でしたらどうでしょう。同じような症状でも「インフルエンザかな」と疑われるかもしれません。

風邪と比べた場合、インフルエンザはどのような特徴があると言えるのでしょうか。
インフルエンザの特徴を把握することで、インフルエンザの予防や罹患した際の早期の医療機関の受診などを期待することができます。

風と比較した場合のインフルエンザの様々な特徴

まず、インフルエンザと風邪に共通する特徴としては、いずれも高熱が出る可能性があるという点では共通します。しかし、高熱が出るプロセスが、風邪とインフルエンザでは大きく異なります。

高熱が出る場合、風邪の際には熱が次第に上がっていくことに対して、
インフルエンザの場合、熱が急激に上がるという点が大きく異なります。

風邪は他の諸症状(喉の痛みや筋肉痛)などに伴って熱が次第に上がって行きます。しかし、インフルエンザの場合には、急激に高い熱が出てしまうという点が特徴です。例えば、インフルエンザの場合、発症後、1時間後には39度もの高熱になってしまっている場合もあります。

ご存知のように、インフルエンザは12月から2月という冬の季節にもっとも良く流行します。この時期に、筋肉痛や喉の痛み、だるさなどを感じた場合にはインフルエンザであると急激な高熱が出てしまうことがあります。そしてインフルエンザの悪化防止のためには発症から48時間以内にタミフルなどで治療をすることが大切です。

12月から2月ころに体調の不調を感じた場合には、インフルエンザの可能性を考え、可能な限り早く病院で診断を受けるようにしましょう。

次に、インフルエンザの特徴として、ウィルスの潜伏期間と発症、快癒までの経過が独特です。風邪の場合には、発症してから栄養と休養を取っていけば次第によくなります。
一方でインフルエンザの場合には、特有のプロセスを辿ります。つまり、2日程度のウィルスの潜伏・高熱などの諸症状の発症・その後2日程度ウィルスが体内に残るという共通したプロセスをとることが特徴です。

特に、最後のウィルスが体に残るという点は特徴です。インフルエンザの高熱が治まった後は、体は「けろり」と元気になります。気持ちとしては、職場や学校に言っても差し支えがないような気持ちにもなるかもしれません。しかし、インフルエンザのウィルスは、熱が引いてからも2日程度は体内に残ります。

そのため、インフルエンザの高熱がおさまった後も2日程度は外出を控え、人との接触を避けるなどをしなければ、インフルエンザをうつしてしまうことになります。このような共通の過程をたどる点がインフルエンザ特徴ということができます。

さらに、子供のインフルエンザの場合、インフルエンザ脳症・インフルエンザ脳炎という病気の可能性があり得ることが特徴と言えます。インフルエンザ脳症・インフルエンザ脳炎は、インフルエンザにまつわる命に関わる病気であり、子供を中心に発症します。

インフルエンザ脳症は免疫機能が過剰反応することで発症する病気であり、発症してしまうと極めて短期間で命を失ってしまう可能性もあります。もちろん、風邪ではこのような病気が生じることは考えられません。

このような独特の病気があることもインフルエンザの特徴です。

最後にインフルエンザと風邪いずれにも共通する特徴として、インフルエンザも風邪もともにウィルスへの感染によって発症します。そして、ウィルスへの感染は、マスクの着用とうがい手洗いの励行によって防止することが可能です。

インフルエンザも風邪も、いずれもウィルスへの感染によって発症するという特徴から、予防方法が共通している点についても押さえておきたい点ということができます。

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まとめ:インフルエンザの特徴のまとめ

本文で述べましたインフルエンザの特徴を風邪との比較・類似性の点からまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 高熱が発症する場合-風邪は次第に高い熱が出るということに比較して、インフルエンザの場合には、急激に高熱が出るという特徴があります
  • 快癒までのプロセス-インフルエンザは、発症から高熱がでて体調快癒後、2日程度はウィルス型以内に残るのが特徴です。そのため、インフルエンザにかかってしまった場合には体調が回復しても2日程度はなるべく人と接しないようにして、感染を拡大させないようにすることが大切です
  • 予防-インフルエンザも風邪もウィルスの感染によって発症する点は共通します。そのため、マスクの着用やうがい手洗いによって感染を防止することにつながります

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