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医者の男

インフルエンザの治療方法

医者

インフルエンザにかかると高熱が出たり、全身に痛みが現れたりして急激に体調が悪くなります。そうすると、つい慌ててしまって、どのように治療したらいいか分からなくなります。

いつインフルエンザにかかっても冷静に対処できるように、今のうちからインフルエンザの治療方法について正しく知っておきましょう。

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一般治療

美女の笑顔

インフルエンザの治療法の一つに、一般療法があります。これは、生活療法とも呼ばれており、インフルエンザ治療の基本となる方法です。

治療の内容は、安静にして睡眠を十分にとったり、高熱による脱水症状が起こらないように水分をしっかり摂ったりすることが挙げられます。

薬物治療

インフルエンザの薬物療法には、「ノイラミニダーゼ阻害薬」と呼ばれる抗インフルエンザウイルス薬を使用する『原因療法』と、症状を和らげるための薬剤を使用する『対症療法』があります。

①原因療法

ノイラミニダーゼ阻害薬は、ウイルスの増殖を抑えて感染の拡大を防ぐ薬です。そのため、発症後できるだけ早く服用を始めることが大切です。

インフルエンザウイルスの増殖のスピードは、非常に速いので、症状が出てから48時間以内にウイルスの増殖のピークがきます。48時間以内にノイラミニダーゼ阻害薬を服用しないと、効果が現れにくくなります。

②対症療法

高熱の場合には解熱鎮痛薬、黄色い痰など細菌の二次感染が疑われる場合には抗菌薬(抗生物質)を使用します。ただし、解熱鎮痛薬はあまりにも高熱が続く場合に使用され、熱が高いからと言って安易に解熱剤を飲むのはおすすめできません。解熱剤を飲むことで症状を長引かせてしまったり、大人でも脳症を引き起こしたりすることがあるからです。

対症療法は、発症してから時間が経った後にインフルエンザと診断された場合によく用いられます。なぜなら、病期の短縮に大きなメリットがないからです。抗インフルエンザウイルス薬を投与せず、自然に治すことになります。

一般的な風邪のウイルスには抗菌薬は効き目がありませんが、インフルエンザに感染した時には例外的に抗菌薬が役立つことがあります。肺炎などの合併症を起こすことが多いので、年齢によっては合併症の予防に効果があります。

脱水を改善するために、点滴治療を行う場合もあります。栄養やカロリーはほとんど入っておらず、そのカロリーは多くても250kcalくらいです。食欲不振時のビタミン不足解消のために、ビタミン剤を点滴に含ませることもあります。

インフルエンザの治療薬

原因療法で用いられるインフルエンザの治療薬には、何種類かあります。有名なところでは、「タミフル」と「リレンザ」があります。いずれも、ウイルスが持っているノイラミダーゼという酵素を阻害します。

タミフルは飲み薬なので投与が簡単です。しかし、低年齢層による服薬後の異常行動があると言われており、小児科領域では問題があるとされています。そのため、子供に対しては現在使用できません。

リレンザは、タミフルと違って喘息の発作に使う薬剤のように、粉状の薬を吸い込む吸引式です。吸引後、効果の発現が比較的速いです。また副作用が小さく、小児科領域でも制限がないので子供でも使用できますが、小さい子供は粉末状の薬剤の吸入が難しいのが現状です。また、元々呼吸器に問題を抱えている喘息や肺気腫のような人には不向きとされています。

治療中の注意点

インフルエンザの症状を改善するためには、抗インフルエンザ薬を服用して、体内のインフルエンザウイルスの増殖を防ぐことが有効です。抗インフルエンザウイルス薬は、発症後すぐに服用を始めれば、服用していない場合よりも発熱期間が1~2日短縮されます。さらに、ウイルスの排泄量も減少して、症状がだんだん改善していきます。

しかし、薬を飲んで熱が下がったとしても、体内のウイルスがすぐにいなくなったわけではありません。したがって、症状が改善したからといって、薬の服用を途中でやめると、体内に残っているウイルスが完全に死滅せず、周りの人に感染する可能性があります。熱が下がっても、薬は処方された量をきちんと飲み切り、最低2日間は自宅で療養するようにしましょう。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
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まとめ:インフルエンザにかかったら、できるだけ早く受診して適切な治療方法で早く治そう

インフルエンザの治療方法には、大きく2つの方法があります。1つ目は、十分な睡眠や水分摂取などの一般療法です。もう1つは薬物療法で、インフルエンザウイルスに直接効果のある薬と、症状を改善させるための薬の
種類があります。タミフルやリレンザといった抗インフルエンザウイルス薬は、症状が出てから48時間以内に投薬しないと効果が現れにくくなります。

体調がおかしい、いつもより高熱が出ていると感じたときは、できるだけ早く病院で診察してもらい、適切な理療方法で早く治るようにしましょう。

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