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手洗い、洗面台、水

接触でも感染するインフルエンザを予防するための消毒法

手洗い

インフルエンザウィルスは、その感染力の高さから、接触によっても感染します。インフルエンザウィルスの接触感染を予防するためには消毒をすることが効果的ですが、消毒方法は洗浄や加熱処理が可能かどうかという点によって対処が異なります。本稿はインフルエンザの接触感染を予防するための消毒方法についてまとめています。

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インフルエンザの接触感染と消毒の必要性

インフルエンザの女性

冬、特に12月から2月ころにかけてはインフルエンザの季節です。インフルエンザはウィルスの感染により罹患してしまいます。インフルエンザの原因となるインフルエンザウィルスは非常に感染力が高く、接触によっても感染します

例えば。ドアノブやテーブルなどにもインフルエンザウィルスは付着し感染します。その他子供がインフルエンザにかかってしまったのであればおもちゃなどにもインフルエンザウィルスは付着してそのおもちゃを片付けなどで触れてしまっても感染の可能性はあります。

このようにしてインフルエンザは接触によっても感染をしていきます。また接触によるインフルエンザの感染を接触感染といいます。

接触感染を予防するためには、インフルエンザにかかってしまった方が触れたものを消毒することが必要となります。消毒は非常に簡易な方法でインフルエンザウィルスを除去することができますので、インフルエンザ罹患者がおられる場合などには消毒をされることがおすすめです。

インフルエンザの消毒方法は以下のように行うことになります。

洗浄・加熱が可能なものの消毒(ドアノブやテーブル、おもちゃなど)

インフルエンザ罹患者が触れたものが洗浄や加熱をすることが可能なものであれば、水と
洗剤での消毒を行います。あるいは加熱処理をします。加熱処理の方法は80度程度で10分間行います

例えば、テーブルであればふきんに洗剤をつけて拭くことで消毒をすることができます。また、子供のおもちゃで可能なものであれば、80度のお湯にいれて10分間の加熱処理により、インフルエンザウィルスを除去することが可能です。

おもちゃなどは子供が複数おられるご家庭でおもちゃを使いまわす場合にはこまめに加熱消毒をしてあげることでインフルエンザが他のお子さんまでも感染してしまうことを防止することが可能となります。

洗浄や加熱が困難なものの消毒

一方で、戦場や加熱をすることが困難な場合(例えばドアノブ・水道の蛇口などの場合)には、消毒液を利用することでインフルエンザウィルスを除去することが可能です。

インフルエンザウィルスを除去する消毒液は①濃度70パーセント以上のアルコールまたは②塩素系消毒液を利用しましょう。これらのアルコールまたは塩素系消毒液を布・ペーパータオルに染みこませ、インフルエンザウィルスを拭き取り、そのまま自然乾燥をさせます。

アルコールは購入の際にやや割高となりますが安全性が高い消毒液となります。一方で塩素系消毒液はリーズナブルですが、子供が間接的に口に運んでしまうこともありえますので、小さなお子さんがおられる家庭などでは使用に注意が必要となります。

塩素系消毒液のつくり方

塩素系の消毒液は、家庭用の塩素系漂白剤(ハイターなど)を水で薄めることで作ります。

具体的には、500ミリリットルのペットボトルに水を半分いれて、ハイターなどのキャップ2杯分(10ミリリットル)を入れます。そしてよく振って混ぜます。これにより約0.1パーセントのインフルエンザ消毒液が出来上がります。また、2リットルのペットボトルであれば0.02パーセントのインフルエンザ消毒液となります。

後者の00.2パーセントの消毒液はドアノブなどに利用することがおすすめです。一方で前者の0.1パーセントの消毒液は相当濃度が高いものとなりますので、嘔吐物、便が付着した箇所などに使用することでインフルエンザウィルスを除去することができます。

可能であれば2種類のインフルエンザウィルスの消毒液を作って使い分けられることが良いと言えます。

なお、インフルエンザウィルスは、接触よりも飛沫(せきやくしゃみなど)による感染の方が非常に感染力が高いものとなります。そのため、消毒液による接触感染を防ぐとともにマスクなどをして飛沫感染を予防することも重要となります。

まとめ:インフルエンザの消毒方法

以上、本文で述べましたインフルエンザの接触感染と消毒方法のポイントなどをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • インフルエンザは接触によっても感染します。例えばドアノブ・テーブル・おもちゃなどにインフルエンザ罹患者が触れることでもインフルエンザウィルスは付着して拡散することがあります
  • インフルエンザの接触感染を予防するためには消毒をすることが効果的です。インフルエンザの消毒方法としては、洗浄や加熱が可能なものであれば、その方法によります。一方で洗浄・加熱が難しいようなものについては消毒液を作って対処することがおすすめできます
  • インフルエンザは接触だけではなく飛沫によっても感染します。消毒によって接触感染を予防しつつ、マスクなどを着用して飛沫感染を予防することも重要です

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