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インフルエンザの再発熱に注意!二峰性発熱の対処法

熱の女性

高い発熱が起きて病院に行ったらなんとインフルエンザ! インフルエンザの治療薬を処方してもらって一安心と思っていたら、なんとまた熱がぶり返してしまった、なんて経験はありませんか?

病気には、多く再発熱が起こる症状を引き起こすものがありますが、ウイルスを原因とするインフルエンザについてはちょっと事情が異なります。つまり、熱がさがった場合、体は一度「ウイルスはいない」と判断しているからです。

再発熱してしまう原因は様々なのですが、インフルエンザの場合に、こうした再発熱の症状を「二峰性発熱」といって注意すべき症状であるとしています。

本記事では、インフルエンザで起こりやすい二峰性発熱についてご説明いたします。

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二峰性発熱の特徴と症状

風邪の男性

インフルエンザによる二峰性発熱は、特に小児期で起こりやすい症状です。乳幼児期のインフルエンザではほとんどの場合でこの二峰性発熱を引き起こすため、より注意が必要であるとされています。

幼児期における二峰性発熱は、はしか、デング熱、アデノウイルス由來の風邪などの場合でもよく確認されることがあります。

インフルエンザにおいて、二峰性発熱が起こることはよく知られていましたが、いまだにその原因はよくわかっていません。抗インフルエンザ薬が効果を発揮したあとでも発熱がおこるため、免疫関係の問題ではないかと言われていますが、今後の研究が待たれる分野です。

二峰性発熱の症状

二峰性発熱が起こる場合は、インフルエンザの治療プロセスに大きな影響をあたえます。

通常、インフルエンザは2から5日間高熱がでた後、平熱にさがります。この平熱に下がる前に起こるさまざまな症状を「全身症状」といい、その後、はなみずや倦怠感を感じる期間を「部分症状」といいます。

本来は熱が下がってウイルスを体外に排出するプロセスであるはずの部分症状期間に発熱が起こるのが「二峰性発熱」の特徴です。

つまり、高熱がでたあと、平熱にさがってから、半日~一日後、再度発熱が起こることがあるのです。37.5度を超えたら、二峰性発熱の可能性が高いとみてください。この後、再び3日程度、発熱が続きます。

登校許可との齟齬

実は、問題は学校の登校許可とも関係します。通常、学校では発病後3から4日程度で登校許可がでる場合があります。しかし、二峰性発熱が起こった場合には、ちょうど発熱の「谷間」に当たる時期に学校に行き、さらにウイルスをばらまいてしまうということがあります。

二峰性発熱の谷間は一日程度と短いのですが、念のため熱が下がって2日間程度はしっかり休むことが必要になります。二峰性発熱がウイルスの突然変異によるもので合った場合はより事態は深刻になりますし、学校で遊んでいる最中に再発熱するケースも多数あります。

二峰性発熱に対する対策

1歳から9歳までの期間では二峰性発熱が非常に多く確認されますが、看病のために親御さんも休みを取らなければならずいろいろと大変です。大人が二峰性発熱を引き起こした場合には、ウイルスの突然変異による場合もあり得るといいますから、気をつけるに越したことはありません。

とくに、小児のインフルエンザには十分な対策を練ることが必要になりますが、インフルエンザの治療や予防についてもしっかりと対策をとることが必要です。ここでは二峰性発熱を起こさないための予防法と、対策を確認しておきましょう。

予防接種をする

ワクチンを使った予防接種によって、再発熱の確率を大幅に抑えることができるとされています。特に小さい子供は予防接種をしてインフルエンザの季節に備えましょう。

手洗いうがいなどを欠かさない

手洗い、うがいといった基本的な日常の対策もしっかりと行いましょう。手は丁寧にあらい、できればアルコール消毒も行っておきたいですね。

さらに、加湿器などをつかって湿度を一定に保つようにすることも重要です。空気清浄機とあわせて利用すれば完璧ですね。

再発熱時に休みをとる

再発熱時にはしっかりと休みをとることが重要です。最初の発熱につづいてのことですから、疲労やダメージも蓄積しています。再発熱時には抵抗力も弱ってますから、熱が下がったといって安心せずしっかりと休むことが重要です。

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まとめ:再発熱の可能性も考慮して治療をしましょう

インフルエンザの再発熱は二峰性発熱といい、とくに子供に多く見られる症状です。インフルエンザにかかった場合、再発熱が起きる可能性も留意する必要があるでしょう。

しかし、一番重要なことはインフルエンザの予防であることは変わりありません。子供にもインフルエンザの予防接種は効果がありますから、もし余裕があれば予防接種を受けた上で、休むとよいでしょう。

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