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抗体があるからといっても安心してはいけないインフルエンザ再発の可能性

手洗い

インフルエンザはウイルスによって罹患する病気です。ウイルスは入ってきた当初は体の様々なレセプターにくっついて悪さをしますが、一度抗体ができればウイルスを撃退することができることは知られていると思います。

だからといって、インフルエンザは一度罹患したらもうかからないといった性質のものではありません。インフルエンザウイルスの種類は多種多様です。インフルエンザで罹患したあとであっても、別のタイプのインフルエンザウイルスに罹患する可能性がないわけではありません。

この記事では、インフルエンザ再発について、そのリスクと対処法についてご説明致します

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インフルエンザの再発について

注射

インフルエンザはウイルスの中でも多種多様さに定評があるタイプのウイルスです。インフルエンザウイルスは、種類によって人や豚、鳥などに罹患するタイプや、馬などに罹患するタイプなどがあり、さらに高熱を発するものもあれば、熱がでないタイプのものなどがあります。

ヒトが罹患するウイルスはA型、B型、C型と大きく分かれる型別がありますが高熱などのインフルエンザの症状を出すのはA型とB型の2つですので、C型はいまはおいて起きます。

このうち、大規模な世界的流行を引き起こすのがA型インフルエンザです。A型の中にも複数種類のインフルエンザウイルスがあり、突然変異によって更に流行が加速していきます。

しかしながら、一度罹患したタイプのインフルエンザウイルスにはきちんと抗体が残っています。続けてインフルエンザに罹患した場合には、異なる種類のウイルスに罹患したものとみるのが無難です。

インフルエンザの流行時期のズレ

なぜそのようなことが起こるのかといえば、じつはインフルエンザの流行には数波の「波」があるからなのです。最初に感染力の強いウイルスが流行し、続いて少し収まった後にタイプの異なるウイルスが流行するといった具合です。

ウイルスの流行は年ごとによって大きく異なります。突然変異の状態にもよりますが、あとはその波ごとのタイプの違いにも影響されます。

1シーズンで数度にわたってインフルエンザに罹患してしまう方は、このような「波」ごとに罹患しているものと考えればわかりやすいと思います。

通常はA型からB型にかかるといったケースが多いようです。A型はB型に比べて非常に感染力、症状ともに強いため、A型の罹患で病気になってしまった後に体力が落ちてしまい無理をして外出したり人にあったりすることでB型に罹患してしまうといったことが多いようです。

タイプの異なるインフルエンザ患者との接触

もうひとつ考えられるのがタイプの異なるインフルエンザ患者との接触です。

インフルエンザは通常飛沫感染によって感染します。せきやくしゃみなどがその原因ですが、一度同じタイプのインフルエンザに罹患した人は再度かかることはほとんどありません。

しかし、タイプの異なるインフルエンザウイルスにおかされている患者との接触があると、別タイプのインフルエンザにかかることがよくあります。

インフルエンザの連続罹患を避けるための方法

インフルエンザの連続罹患を避けるためには、インフルエンザにかからないようにすることと、最初にかかったインフルエンザをしっかり治すことが重要になります。また、そうならないように予防接種をすることも重要になるでしょう。

インフルエンザをしっかり治す

まず、連続罹患を防ぐためには最初にかかってしまった「インフルエンザをしっかり治す」ことが必要になります。

通常はインフルエンザであっても熱が下がれば仕事に復帰することがあると思いますが、実は熱が下がったあとでも体力が大幅に低下しており、ウイルスを体外に排出するプロセスが続いています。

インフルエンザに罹患しないように気をつける

インフルエンザの連続罹患は、時期的な問題も大きいようです。
インフルエンザに罹患しないように人通りの多いところをさけ、健康に気を配り、アルコール消毒などをこまめに行いましょう。

特に手先のアルコール消毒はエンベロープをもつインフルエンザウイルスに対して非常に高い効果をもちます。インフルエンザに罹患しないように気を付けましょう。

予防接種を受ける

予防接種は10月から12月にかけて受けることができます。2回の摂取によって、多くの種類の抗体を手に入れることができますから、連続罹患する可能性を大きくさげることができます。予防接種は余裕があればぜひ受けておきましょう。

まとめ:インフルエンザ再発は予防策を講じて

インフルエンザの再発を防ぐためには、徹底した予防策を講じることが必要になります。インフルエンザは型が違えば1シーズンで複数回罹患することがありますから、インフルエンザに一度かかったとしても油断はできません。

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Check Also

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