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寝転ぶ女性
寝転ぶ女性

妊娠中にインフルエンザにかかった場合の対策法

寝転ぶ女性

妊娠中にまさかの高熱、これってもしかしてインフルエンザ?妊婦の方だったら、慌ててしまいますよね。妊娠中は不安な事が沢山あります。イザ!という時に慌てない為に、日頃から正しい知識を身につけておきましょう。今回は、妊娠中にインフルエンザにかかった時の対策法をご紹介します。

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妊娠中にインフルエンザにかかった時

インフルエンザの女性

まず皆さんが心配されるのは、インフルエンザの特効薬、「タミフル」や「リレンザ」を使用しても大丈夫なのか?という事でしょう。妊娠中に薬を服用するのは、胎児の影響を考えるとお勧め出来る事ではありません。しかし、インフルエンザの場合、インフルエンザワクチンを摂取しても副作用がない、との報告がされています。いきなり高熱が出た場合、なるべく48時間以内に病院を受診し、医師の診察をうけましょう。

インフルエンザワクチンの例外

100万人に、2~3人という割合ですが、卵アレルギーのある方がインフルエンザワクチンを使用した時に、アナフィラキシーショックにより急激な血圧低下に見舞われたとの報告があります。妊娠中は、普段より免疫力が下がっていますから、卵アレルギーのある方は、使用を控えた方が良いかもしれません。

インフルエンザ予防接種について

もともと人間の身体には、ナチュラルキラー細胞と呼ばれる体内に入ったウィルスを退治してくれる免疫機能がそなわっています。しかし妊娠中はこの免疫機能が通常の約半分に下がってしまい、風邪やインフルエンザにかかりやすいのです。インフルエンザの予防接種は、妊娠16週以降なら、受けておいた方が良いでしょう。

予防接種の副作用

健康な妊婦さんなら、予防接種の副作用はまずありません。しかし、喘息、糖尿病、心臓病などの持病がある方は医師と相談した方が良いでしょう。

インフルエンザの予防接種は流行する前、秋口あたりから摂取するのがベストです。予防接種してから体内に免疫ができるまでおよそ2週間ほどかかります。流行しはじめてからでは遅いのです。大体3月くらいまでが流行期間ですが、もう遅いかも?と思われる方でも、心配なら予防接種された方がよいでしょう。沖縄で夏にインフルエンザが流行した事もあります。

胎児への影響

赤ちゃんは1歳まで予防接種ができません。しかし妊婦のうちに予防接種を受けておく事で、胎盤を通して胎児に予防接種の抗体ができます。生まれてから、赤ちゃんがインフルエンザにかかりにくくなります。赤ちゃんの免疫力であるナチュラルキラー細胞は、4分の1から5分の1程度しかありません。その意味でも、予防接種は受けておいても良いでしょう。

ワクチンの種類

インフルエンザのワクチンは「不活化ワクチン」なので、胎児には影響が無く、副作用もありません。それでも心配の場合は、防腐剤フリーのプレフィルドシリンジというワクチンを選ぶといいでしょう。より安心です。バイアルというワクチンには防腐剤ははいっていますが、副作用は報告されていません。

妊娠中の注意点

妊娠中は血液循環量が通常の 1,5倍になる為心臓に負担がかかります。子宮が大きくなると、横隔膜を押し上げて肺を圧迫する為に肺にも影響がでます。インフルエンザに限らず、体調の変化を受けやすいので、普段より健康には注意しましょう。

カリフォルニアで、19000人のインフルエンザにかかった妊婦を対象に調査した所、生まれた子供が双極性障害、いわゆる躁鬱病になる可能性が3、8倍になったという報告があります。しかしインフルエンザの副作用については、世界的に影響がないと言われていますから、因果関係は不明です。日本の虎ノ門病院の報告によるとインフルエンザにかかった妊婦84人中、先天性異常で生まれた胎児は1人だけで、これは普通妊娠の範囲内である、と発表しています。

はじめての妊娠・出産安心マタニティブック―お腹の赤ちゃんの成長が毎日わかる!
A.Christine Harris 竹内 正人
永岡書店
売り上げランキング: 574

薬に頼らない対策法

副作用がない、と分かっても、やっぱり薬はあまり使いたくないという方には民間療法があります。まずビタミンCをたっぷり取る事。ビタミンCは大量にとってもすぐ体外へ排出されるので毎日取っても安心です。身体の抵抗力を高める働きがあるので、積極的に取りましょう。

殺菌作用のあるアロマオイルを利用するのも、リラックス効果があるのでお勧めです。ラベンダーやティートリーは香りも良くルームコロンにしたり入浴時に使うと良いでしょう。軽い風邪の引き始めには、発汗を促す作用のあるショウガや梅干しを使ったお茶を飲んで首を温めるのも効果があります。

いかがですか。妊娠中でも、インフルエンザワクチンや予防接種は有効な事がわかりましたね。胎児にも有益ですから、心配な方は今からでも予防接種しておくと良いでしょう。

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