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風邪の男
風邪の男

インフルエンザに麻黄湯が効果的な場合と効果的でない場合

風邪でマスクをつける男

 

漢方の風邪薬として使われる事の多い麻黄湯。近年ではインフルエンザの予防・早期治療に有効であるとの事から病院で処方されるケースも多い漢方薬です。しかしインフルエンザであれば必ず効果があるというわけではないようです。

こちらでは、インフルエンザに麻黄湯が効果的な場合と効果的でない場合についてご紹介します。

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インフルエンザと麻黄湯

麻黄湯とは

インフルエンザの女性

漢方薬は、自然の草や木からとった「生薬」の組み合わせでできています。麻黄湯は、主薬の“麻黄”を中心に、下記の4種類の生薬からなります。“麻黄”と“桂皮”は発汗・発散作用をもつ代表的な生薬で、病因を発散して追い出すような働きをします。

また、“麻黄”には薬理的にも重要な役割をする交感神経刺激薬のエフェドリン類が含まれます。この成分は、西洋医学の気管支拡張薬と同様の作用を示し、咳やゼイゼイする喘鳴をおさえます。さらにこれに、鎮咳・去痰作用のある“杏仁”、緩和作用をもつ“甘草”が加わります。これらがいっしょに働くことで、よりよい効果を発揮するのです。病院では、煎じる必要のない乾燥エキス剤を用いるのが一般的です。

麻黄湯の働き

発汗作用があり、体の熱や腫れ、あるいは痛みを発散して治します。病気の初期で、まだ体力が十分ある人に適します。一般的には、カゼのひき始めでゾクゾク寒気がし、発熱やふしぶしの痛み、痛頭などをともなうときに用います。また、そのような症状をともなうインフルエンザにも適します。

そのほか、鼻づまり、関節リウマチ、喘息などにも用いますが、体の弱っている虚弱な人には不向きです。

インフルエンザと麻黄湯

インフルエンザの治療に麻黄湯を使うと、抗ウイルス薬のタミフルと同じ程度の症状軽減効果があるという研究結果を、福岡大病院の鍋島茂樹・総合診療部長らが発表したことにより、近年では病院で処方されるケースも多いです。

しかしインフルエンザ症状を漢方の視点で診ますと症状や体質に違いがあり、いつでも「麻黄湯」がよいとは限らないそう。インフルエンザ症状や風邪症状の場合でもその時の体質や症状に合った漢方薬を服用しませんと症状が悪化してしまったり、思わぬ症状が現れてしまうことがありますので、注意が必要です。

漢方薬の利点

漢方は、人間が本来持っている自然治癒力を高めることにより、解熱・回復へと導きますので、耐性菌にも効果的です。漢方薬は解熱が早い場合が多いので、比較的体力の消耗が少なく、体にやさしいので、小さな子供さんやご高齢の方まででも服用できます。また、妊婦さんや授乳中の方にも好評です。漢方薬による眠気は起こりませんので、受験生や車の運転をする方にも安心です。

ただし症状と体力などの状態に合わせて漢方薬を選択する必要があります。体力や体質に合わせた漢方薬を服用しないと期待した効果が得られなかったり、症状が悪化することがあります。

麻黄湯の副作用

漢方薬は、副作用がないと思われがちですが、人によっては、胃の不快感や食欲不振、吐き気、動悸、不眠、発汗過多などを起こすことがあります。重い副作用はめったにありませんが、以下の症状を引き起こすことがあります。

  • 偽アルドステロン症:低カリウム血症、血圧上昇、むくみ、体重増加、ナトリウム・体内の貯留等
  • ミオパシー:脱力感、四肢痙攣・麻痺等(低カリウム血症の結果としてあらわれることがある。)
  • 過敏症:発疹、発赤、かゆみ等
  • 自律神経系:不眠、発汗過多、動悸、頻脈、精神興奮等
  • 消化器:食欲不振、胃部不快感、悪心、嘔吐等
  • 泌尿器:排尿障害等

インフルエンザに麻黄湯を使用するとき

麻黄湯が効果的な時とは

寒気が強く熱がこもっていて汗が出ない状態は麻黄湯が効果的です。「寒気が強く汗をかいていない状態で、体に熱がこもっている。どちらかとういうと元々の体力はあるほうである。」このような状態のインフルエンザ症状であれば、麻黄湯でも効果があると思います。しかしインフルエンザ症状は、その時、その人の体質によっても異なり、様々ですので、全ての人がこの状態にあてはまる訳ではありません。
 

注意が必要な時とは

以下の人には注意が必要です。

  • 身体がひどく弱っている人:副作用があらわれやすくなり、その症状が増強されるおそれがある
  • 発汗の多い人:発汗過多・全身脱力感・食欲不振・けいれん等があらわれることがある
  • 胃腸の調子が悪い人:食欲不振・胃部不快感、悪心、嘔吐等があらわれることがある

加えて循環器系に病気または既往歴のある人(高血圧、心臓病、脳卒中)、腎臓病、排尿障害、甲状腺機能亢進症のある人等は、症状が悪化するおそれがあります。エフェドリンやテオフィリンなど交感神経刺激作用のある薬との併用は慎重におこないます。また、芍薬甘草湯など甘草を含む他の漢方薬といっしょに飲むときは、「偽アルドステロン症」や「ミオパシー」の副作用に注意が必要です。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
村上 一裕
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まとめ:インフルエンザに麻黄湯は効かない時もある

インフルエンザで寒気が強く熱がこもっていて汗が出ない状態は麻黄湯が効果的です。しかしインフルエンザ症状は、その時、その人の体質によっても異なるので、必ずしも効くとは限りません。効果的な場合をおさらいしておきましょう。

  • 風邪のひきはじめ
  • 寒気がする
  • 発熱・頭痛がする
  • 体のふしぶしが痛い
  • ある程度体が丈夫な人
  • 発汗していない
  • 胃腸の調子が悪くない

ぴったり当てはまれば副作用の心配もなく、妊婦さんや受験生までおススメです。ただ、体質で合わないこともありますので、効果のないときは、医師と相談してみてください。

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