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インフルエンザの予防接種、注射
インフルエンザの予防接種、注射

インフルエンザの予防接種の時に行われることがある筋肉注射の特徴

筋肉注射

インフルエンザのワクチンを投与する際に用いられる方法は筋肉注射ではなく、皮下注射です。筋肉注射と皮下注射にはどのような違いがあるのでしょうか?

皮下注射というのは日本で良く用いられている、注射の方法です。皮下組織に薬液を注射する方法で、注射針を皮膚に対して斜めに差し込み行ないます。インフルエンザの予防接種も日本ではこの皮下注射という方法で行われ、通常筋肉注射は行われません。

では筋肉注射とはどのような方法なのでしょうか?筋肉注射というのはその名の通り筋肉内に薬液を投与する注射方法です。皮膚に注射針を垂直に刺して行なわれます。日本でも昔は筋肉注射が頻繁に行なわれていましたが、筋肉注射は筋肉に異常をきたすことがあるということが1970年代に明らかになったため、日本において筋肉注射はほとんど行われなくなっています。

とはいえ、外国ではワクチンの接種のために筋肉注射が頻繁に行なわれています。外国でインフルエンザのワクチンを受ける機会があるなら、それは筋肉注射によって行われることがあるかもしれません。

この記事では筋肉注射の特徴を幾つかご紹介してみたいと思います。参考にしてみてください。

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筋肉注射の特徴

風邪の女性

現在の日本において筋肉注射をされる機会はほとんどないことでしょう。日本ではほとんどの注射が皮下注射です。しかし、強い薬を投与しなければならない時には筋肉注射をされることがあるでしょう。また外国に長期滞在していたり、住んでいたりするなら、日本で良く知られている注射方法と異なる筋肉注射をされる時に戸惑うことがあるかもしれません。ですから、筋肉注射についてある程度知っておくことが大切です。

筋肉注射の特徴その1:局所の痛みが強い時に行う注射

日本において、筋肉注射は強い薬を注射するときに使われる注射方法です。皮下注射と比べて長い針が使用されます。皮下注射よりも薬剤の吸収が早いことが特徴です。外国ではワクチンの予防接種の時にも筋肉注射が行われますので、外国と日本のインフルエンザの予防接種の方法は違うということを覚えておく必要があるでしょう。

筋肉注射の特徴その2:注射する薬の量が多い

筋肉注射は比較的多くの薬剤を投与することができる注射方法です。皮下注射の場合、投与することができる薬剤は2mlほどですが、筋肉注射では5mlほどの薬液を注射することができます。多い時には10mlほどの筋肉注射が行われることもあるようです。多めの薬剤を注射したい場合に筋肉注射が行われることがあるでしょう。

インフルエンザに感染した時には基本的に飲み薬を服用することによって治療が行われます。また、インフルエンザの予防接種はあらかじめ薬液の量は決まっていると思いますので、このような筋肉注射が行われることはほとんど無いと思いますが、担当の医師の判断によりお尻などに筋肉注射を打たれることがあるかもしれません。

筋肉注射の特徴その3:薬の種類

注射を行なう薬の性質によって、皮下注射や静脈注射ができない場合は筋肉注射が行われます。注射液には水性剤、油性剤、懸濁液というものがあります。静脈注射や皮下注射はこのうちの水性剤の薬剤しか使用することができません。ですから、油性剤や、懸濁液といった種類の薬剤は筋肉注射によって投与されることになります。

婦人科のホルモン注射はその代表的な注射です。それらの薬液はほとんどが油性液なので、筋肉注射以外に投与する方法がありません。

インフルエンザのワクチンに関しては皮下注射もしくは筋肉注射という方法が用いられています。

筋肉注射の特徴その4:痛み

筋肉注射=痛いというイメージを持っておられるかもしれません。これは、筋肉注射に使用される薬剤の刺激によるものです。筋肉は他の組織に比べて痛みを感じにくい部分なので、少し刺激の強い酸性やアルカリ性の薬剤を使用するときに筋肉注射方法を使用することがあります。インフルエンザのワクチンはどうかというと一概には言えませんのでお医者さんの判断に任せられることでしょう。

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まとめ:注射の種類についてよく知っておきましょう

この記事では特に筋肉注射とはどのようなものなのかという特徴についてご紹介させていただきました。参考にしていただけたでしょうか?

日本で行われるインフルエンザの予防接種はその多くが皮下注射です。しかし、インフルエンザの予防接種のために筋肉注射が用いられることもあります。また外国ではほとんどが筋肉注射でしょう。落ち着いて注射を受けるために、注射方法の種類について知っておくなら役に立つことでしょう。是非この記事を参考にしてみてください。

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