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すぐに診断してくれるインフルエンザ検査キット

医師

インフルエンザの診断には、「検査キット」が使われます。インフルエンザの検査は迅速性が命ですから、迅速診断キットと呼ばれるこの検査キットは極めて小さく、大量に生産できるため、どこの医療機関にも常備しています。

基本的には医療用のものであり、インフルエンザの陽性陰性の判別に関しては専門的な知識を要求しますが、その取扱は簡単です。
この記事では、インフルエンザの判定ができる検査キットについてご説明いたします。

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検査キットの種類と使い方

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検査キットと呼ばれているものは、基本的に同じ原理を使っているものです。

インフルエンザの検出には、「ウイルス検出検査」と「血清抗体検査」がありますが、多くの簡易キットで使われているのが「ウイルス検出検査」方式です。

高度な技術が不要で、手軽に検査ができ、30分以内に結果がでます。保存も室温でよく、健康保険が適用できるなどの理由からひろく使われています。

通常の検査キットは「体外診断用医薬品」ということで、医療機関でのみ使用されています。通常一般には販売されていませんし、もし自分で検査をしてもインフルエンザの対処薬をもらうためには、病院で検査を受ける必要があります。

簡易検査キットの原理

簡易検査キットは、抗原抗体反応を利用した免疫法によって判定します。A,B型それぞれのウイルス核にあるタンパクに反応する抗体がライン上に塗布されており、この抗体はインフルエンザ以外との抗原とは反応しません。

検体(鼻水など)に含まれるインフルエンザの抗原が、判定部の抗体と接触すると、試薬が発色することで青色や赤紫色に見えるというしくみになっているのです。
このような形式を「イムノクロマトグラフィー法」と呼ばれており、通常ひろく使われチエルインフルエンザ製品はほぼすべてこのタイプです。

製品によって発色させる方法がことなります。抗原を酵素で標識させ、発色させる酵素免疫測定法や、抗体に着色粒子としての金コロイドを結合させる金コロイド法などが実用化されています。

大きめな分析装置にかける場合にはコロイド法が一般的に使われているようです。

検査キットの種類と性質

あまり気にすることの少ない検査キットですが、実は各メーカーから様々なものが販売されています。検査キットの多くは非売品です、

検査によってかかる保険適用は150点、判断料として144点がかかります。この値段はどの種類の検査キットを使っても変わりませんので、安心して検査をうけてよいでしょう。

キャピリアFlu A+B

インフルエンザのA、B型の型別判定が1つのテストプレートで検出可能です。インフルエンザAウイルス、Bウイルスのかんたp区を認識するモノクローナル抗体を使っています。

測定操作は簡単で、迅速にけったが得られます。保存は21ヶ月と長期なのも嬉しい所ですね。

患者用の小冊子も配布されています。インターネット上でも手に入れることができます。

クイックナビTM-Flu

反応時間が8分と短く、使いやすい滅菌綿棒が添付されています。インフルエンザの抗原をA型もB型も検出することができます。検査方法はやや複雑ですが、非常に細やかな判定結果を得ることができ、これを使う医療機関も少なくありません。
非常にこまかく臨床性能評価試験結果を好評していますので、高い信頼性を得ることができるのです。

検査キットは家庭では手に入らないのか

検査キットは家庭では基本的に手に入らないことになっています。極稀に入手される方もいますが、まずこの検体をとり、反応させても、そこからウイルスの種類や結果を正しく判定するのは少々コツが必要な場合が多いようです。

そして何より重要なのが、陰性に反応したとしても実は陽性である可能性があるという「擬陽性」が簡易検査キットではどうしても発生してしまうということです。擬陽性率は検査キットや流行度合いによっても異なりますが、擬陽性を調べるために二回の検査を行う医療機関も少なくありません。

また、今後の治療方針にも重要なデータになりますので、やはり医療機関で受けたほうがよいですね。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
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まとめ:簡単ではあってもインフルエンザ検査キットはプロに任せよう

インフルエンザ検査キットはインフルエンザシーズンが来る前から大量に配備され、簡単にインフルエンザの有無を見出すことができます。

インフルエンザ検査キットは簡単に検査ができますが、この検査結果をもとに治療方針をたて医薬品の投与を決める重要な判断材料になります。やはり医療機関にいって正しく検査してもらうほうがよいでしょう。

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