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研究医、ウイルス、ラボ
研究医、ウイルス、ラボ

インフルエンザの検査は痛い?インフルエンザの検査法

研究医

インフルエンザにかかったかも。そう思っている方はすぐに病院に行かなければいけません。インフルエンザに罹患したらすぐに治療薬を摂取しなければ、インフルエンザの特効薬の効果をえることができないのです。

インフルエンザの検査法でもっとも広く使われるのが、鼻の粘膜を摂取する迅速検査法ですが、これは痛いという方も少なくありません。インフルエンザの検査法のあれこれを紹介しながら、インフルエンザ検査の最先端をご紹介いたします。

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インフルエンザ検査が痛いその理由

医者

インフルエンザの検査は、鼻の粘膜からとった鼻水などによって判定する迅速検査法が一般的です。かつては血液検査なども併用されていましたし、喉の粘膜をつかっていたりもしていましたが、鼻の粘膜がもっともウイルスが繁殖し増殖し表面に出てきやすい場所なのです。

ウイルス自体は鼻だけではなく喉からも侵入することが知られていますが、鼻の検査が一般的に行われるのはそのような理由によるものです。
しかし、鼻の粘膜とはいっても表面を軽く撫でるだけではなく、奥のほうをグリグリと摩擦するように摂取するため、しばらくは鼻がヒリヒリと痛むという方がいるのも事実です。ウイルスは粘膜表面ではなく奥で増殖します。

インフルエンザの検査には、他にも様々な種類がありますが、このような鼻の粘膜からの検査がもっとも「感度」がよいとされています。喉からとるタイプなどに比べても極めて高い感度を誇ります。

採血の場合には、一日以上の時間がかかってしまう上、ウイルスがでる場所でもありません。血流中に大量のウイルスが存在している状態はかなり「手遅れ」であるといえるでしょう。

ウイルス分離検査

インフルエンザに罹患後、3日以内に、のどや鼻から検体を摂取してウイルスの種類を調べるという検査がウイルス分離検査です。結果がでるまで10日近くかかってしまう難点があるのですが、精度が非常に高いことが特徴です。

インフルエンザが流行り始めた時期などに保健所等の検査で行われることがあります。これによって流行しているウイルスの種類を確定することができるので現在でもよく行われています。

血清抗体検査

インフルエンザに罹患後、7日以内に1度、回復後にもう一度検査をおこなうことでウイルスの抗体ができているかをチェックする方法です。結果が出るまでに2週間かかりますので、抗体ができたかどうかが気になる人以外はほとんど使われない検査方法であるといえるでしょう。

しかし、予防接種をうけたあとなどに抗体ができたかを検査する方法もあります。

PCR検査

喉や鼻からインフルエンザウイルスの遺伝子の有無をチェックする検査方法です。極めて精度がたかく、迅速で精密です。しかしながら、極めて高価で高度な機械と技術が必要であるため、一般の病院ではこの検査を行っていません。

最新のインフルエンザ検査

インフルエンザ検査は以前に比べても手軽かつ容易になりました。インフルエンザ検査を行うための手間やリスクも大きく減りましたが、鼻をごりごりされるのは勘弁! という方も多くいるのも事実でしょう。五分ぐらいはヒリヒリしますものね。

インフルエンザウイルス検査の方法をめぐって日々様々な方法が研究開発されています。。インフルエンザ検査の進歩も日進月歩ですので、ここではそうしたインフルエンザウイルス検査の最先端事情についてご説明いたします。

痛くないインフルエンザ治療を行う病院

泉ヶ丘にある沖田耳鼻咽喉病院では、痛くないインフルエンザ治療と銘打ち、様々な「痛くない工夫」を行っています。子供向けのインフルエンザ検査では日本有数の実績を誇ります。

特に鼻をこすられて痛みを感じる子供にたいしては鼻かみ用の検査キットを利用しています。ティッシュで行うように鼻をかみ、その紙を使って、検査を行うのです。
鼻をかめない小さな子どもに対しても、吸引管を使って鼻奥の鼻汁を採取することができます。痛みを大幅に抑えて、高い精度で診断ができるというところに強みがあります。

また、治療に使う薬も、最先端の「イナビル」を使います。吸入粉末型の薬で、一度吸入すればくりかえし服用しなくてもよい最先端の薬です。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
村上 一裕
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まとめ:痛くない検査もあるけれど、痛くても少しの辛抱です

インフルエンザの治療でもっとも重要なのは迅速性です。インフルエンザウイルスの検査は罹患後24時間以内に行うのが望ましく、そのまますぐにインフルエンザの治療薬を摂取するのがよいとされています。

迅速検査法では鼻の奥をごりごりと削るように綿棒で粘膜を摂取するため痛みを感じますが、痛くない検査も増えてきています。精度が高くて安心の迅速検査法でも十分です。とにかく早めに治療をしましょう。

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