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インフルエンザの感染期間と期間中の注意点

医師

インフルエンザに感染すると、一体どの程度の期間はウィルスが体内にいるものなのでしょうか?また、どの程度の期間周囲に感染する可能性があるのでしょうか?

今回はインフルエンザに感染する経緯と期間について、またその時に気を付けておきたいことを紹介していきましょう。

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インフルエンザはどのように感染する?

一体人はどのようにしてインフルエンザに感染するのでしょうか?人から人へ感染する場合、その経路を知っておくことで自分がかかったときに周囲に感染させない目安になります。

まずはどのようにして感染するのかを見ていくことにしましょう。

感染経路を知っておく

医師

インフルエンザの感染経路には、飛沫感染・空気感染・接触感染というものがあります。飛沫感染とは感染者のくしゃみや咳などで空気中に飛散した微粒子を吸引してしまったり目の粘膜などから侵入することで感染する経路を言います。また、これらのウィルスが空気中で生息していたものから感染する経路を空気感染といいます。

さらに、感染者が触れたことで付着してしまったウィルスに触り、その手で目をこすったり口にしたりすることで感染する経路を接触感染といいます。

感染してからの潜伏期間

インフルエンザの潜伏期間はおよそ1日~2日と言われています。個人差がありますが、免疫力が高い人の場合には発症まで1週間ほどある人もいます。

インフルエンザウィルスが体内で増殖すると症状が出始め、ここで初めて感染していたという事がわかります。症状の出方も個人差がありますが、インフルエンザの症状として特にわかりやすいのが急激に発熱をするという点です。急に熱が上がってきたらインフルエンザを疑うべきです。

ウィルスに感染してからこのような症状を発症するまでを潜伏期間といいます。潜伏期間は個人差があるものの、いずれにしてもこの間に周囲にもインフルエンザウィルスが感染する可能性があります。

発症してから解熱までの期間

周囲への感染率が最も高くなるのがこの時期です。発症してから解熱まで、早ければ1日程度、長ければ5日程度かかる人もいます。

この期間の症状には、発熱の上昇や全身の倦怠感、筋肉痛や関節痛、食欲の減退などがあり、加えて新型インフルエンザの場合には嘔吐や下痢などがあります。

解熱後の期間

インフルエンザが終息する目安として解熱後およそ2日とされていますが、これはインフルエンザウィルスを排出し終わるまでをこの期間と定めているからです。

体内でインフルエンザウィルスを除去する働きがすすみ、ウィルスが減ってその働きが落ち着いてくると徐々に発熱が下がってきます。平熱に戻るころにはほぼウィルスは撃退されつつありますが、解熱してからも2日間はまだ周囲への感染の可能性が残っていると考えられています。

そのため、解熱後2日経過しないうちは外出を控えるように勧められています。この解熱後2日間ないし再診で完治したと認められた時点ではじめて感染期間が終わったと言えるわけです。

感染期間にできることとは

ここからはインフルエンザにかかってしまった場合、感染期間中にできることとその理由について説明していきたいと思います。

外出を控える

もっともインフルエンザを発症してしまったら外出どころではなくなると思いますが、人によってはあまり症状の自覚がないまま収束してしまう人もいます。感染期間中に外出するという事はそれだけ周囲の人にも感染の可能性を高めてしまうことになります。自分が新たな感染源にならないように、診察以外の外出はなるべく控えるようにしましょう。

高温多湿を保つ

インフルエンザウィルスは低温低湿を好むため流行期間が冬に集中します。高温多湿の環境では長時間生息できないからです。

予防対策としても重要とされていますが、感染してからも高温多湿を保つことでインフルエンザウィルスを早く撃退する助けになります。また、空気中でのウィルスの生存率を低くすることで家族などの周囲への感染率を引き下げることができます。

手洗いやうがいをし、マスクをつける

インフルエンザウィルスの特徴として、空気中などでは長時間性是オンすることができないという事があります。インフルエンザウィルスは何かしらに寄生していないと生存でいないタイプのウィルスですので体外から排出することでその感染を終息に向かわせることができるのです。

マスクは周囲への感染率を大きく下げる効果がありますし、また再度吐き出したウィルスを体内に戻してしまわないためにも効果的です。

手洗いやうがいも同じく少しでも早く体内からウィルスを排出するためにはとても効果的な方法なのです。

解熱後もすぐには完治しないという事を意識する

インフルエンザウィルスは意外にしぶといと思いましょう。解熱後も体力は回復していても完全にウィルスを排除しきってしまうまでには2日程度かかります。体力が回復してきたらサイド医師の診断を受けて、完全にインフルエンザが完治したことを確認してから学校や仕事に出かけるようにしましょう。

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まとめ:インフルエンザを早く治すためには感染期間中が大切

ここまでインフルエンザに感染する経緯と感染してから何が大切かを学んできました。何より早くインフルエンザから立ち直るために、そして周囲にうつしてしまわないためにも感染期間中にこそできることをを実践するようにしましょう。

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