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風邪をひいた女性
風邪をひいた女性

知って予防しよう、インフルエンザの主な感染経路3つ

インフルエンザの女性

クリスマスも近づき今年も残すところわずかです、12月から1月にかけては何かと忙しくもあり楽しい時期でもありますね。

しかし乾燥したこの時期はインフルエンザウィルスの流行する時期でもあります、皆さんインフルエンザ対策はしっかりなさっていますか?

インフルエンザの予防には手洗いやうがいを習慣的に行うのが一番です、インフルエンザの感染経路を知っておけばより効果的に感染を未然に防ぐ事が出来ます。

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インフルエンザウィルスの主要感染経路

夜景

インフルエンザは主に3つの感染経路によって感染すると考えられています。

  • 飛沫による感染
  • 接触による感染
  • 空気からの感染

感染経路1・飛沫感染

飛沫感染とはインフルエンザにかかった人がする咳やくしゃみによって飛散したウィルスを健康な人が吸引してしまう事によって感染するケースです。

人間が一回の咳で周囲に撒き散らす分泌物の粒子は10万個、くしゃみとなるとその数なんと約200万個と言われています。インフルエンザ感染者の咳やくしゃみには当然インフルエンザウィルスが含まれていますので、この時周囲に居る人はこの粒子と共にウィルスを吸引してしまう事になります。

インフルエンザに感染した患者さんの近くに居る時はマスクをお忘れなく。

感染経路2・接触感染

インフルエンザのウィルスは乾燥した環境下では比較的長時間生き続けられます。

インフルエンザに感染している人の咳やくしゃみを直接吸い込まなくても、ウィルスが付着している物に触れ、その手で無意識に口や鼻に触れる事によって感染が起こり得ます。

特に公共の場である電車のつり革や手すりなど不特定多数の人が触れている物に触った後は注意が必要です。ウィルスは目の粘膜などあらゆる場所から体内に侵入可能です、手を直接鼻や口に持っていかなくても感染は起こり得ます。

この時期は頻繁に手を石鹸で良く洗いましょう。

感染経路3・空気感染

インフルエンザに感染している人の咳やくしゃみで飛散した粒子は長時間空気中に漂います。特に乾燥した室内ではウィルスが長時間にわたって感染力を保持できるだけでなく、空気も停滞しているので粒子が長時間にわたって空中を漂います。

インフルエンザの感染経路を断つためにもまめに喚起を行い停滞した室内の空気を入れ替えましょう。また社内などにインフルエンザに感染した疑いのある人が居る時はその人が近くに居なくてもマスクをするようにしておくと良いでしょう。

インフルエンザの感染経路を断ちましょう

インフルエンザのウィルスは以上の経路で感染します、インフルエンザにならない為にも普段から感染経路を断つようにしておくと良いでしょう。

手洗いとうがいを頻繁に行いましょう

インフルエンザのウィルスはどこに付着しているかわかりません、特に公共の場などで不特定多数の人が触れる物に触れた後などは手洗いとうがいを普段よりも念入りにするようにしましょう。

加湿器を使って室内の湿度を上げておきましょう

インフルエンザのウィルスは乾燥した環境下で感染力を増します。また、乾燥した環境では私たちの呼吸器官の粘膜の機能が低下し、ウィルスに対する防御力も弱くなります、長時間にわたる乾燥を避け、感染経路を断つ為に加湿器はとても有効です。

インフルエンザの感染力を減少させる為に適切な室内の湿度50%~60%と言われています。

普段から体の免疫力を高めておきましょう

どんなに気を使ってインフルンザの感染経路を少なくしておいても、やはりウィルスは様々な経路で体内に侵入を試みます。普段から食事に気を使い、十分な睡眠をとり、適度な運動をする事によって体の免疫力を高めておくことはインフルエンザやその他の病気を予防する為に最も大切な事です。

免疫力を高めてくれる食品などを知っておく事も重要ですが、免疫機能を低下させる一番の原因はストレスとも言われています。運動や休養など、ストレスを溜めないように生活をしていく事も結果的にインフルエンザ等の病原菌の感染経路を断つことになります。

ワクチンによる予防接種

インフルエンザウィルスの感染経路を断つために最も有効的と思われがちなワクチンによる予防接種ですが、実のところこのワクチンによる予防の効果ははっきりとしていないのが現状です。

これについては賛否両論あるようですが、そもそも予防接種によってインフルエンザの患者数が減少したというデータが存在しないようです、またワクチンが引き起こしたアレルギー反応による副作用や死者も出ていることから、あまりワクチンによる感染予防はお勧めできた物ではありません。

やはり今後の事を考えても普段から自己の免疫力を高めておくのが一番良いのではないでしょうか。

インフルエンザの感染経路を断とう!まとめ

  • インフルエンザの感染経路には主に飛沫感染、接触感染、空気感染の3つがある。
  • 手洗いやうがいを徹底して感染経路をある程度経つ事が出来る。
  • さらに加湿器で室内湿度を50%程度に保っておくと効果的である。
  • 普段から免疫力を高めておく事は最も有効な予防手段。

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