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インフルエンザにかかった時の病院の診察を受ける必要性

病院

インフルエンザにかかってしまった時には必ず病院に行かなければならないのでしょうか?自宅療養で治せる場合はどのような場合なのでしょうか?

今回は、インフルエンザにかかった時の病院に行かなければならい場合や、受診するときの病院の選び方など、病院に関するなるほどを紹介していきたいと思います。

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自宅療養できるケース

注射

予め感染予防としてワクチンを接種している場合、インフルエンザに感染したとしても左程症状が重くならないケースが良くあります。もともとインフルエンザの治療においては人体の免疫力や自然治癒力を発揮させることが重要視されていて、症状があまりに重くてつらいときには対症薬を処方されることもありますが、抗ウィルス剤以外の投薬は基本的にされません。

ワクチン接種を受けているのであれば、そのワクチンが有効なインフルエンザに関しては発症しない場合が殆どで、仮に発症しても自宅で療養できる範囲だという事が言えます。ただ、このように軽度の症状であってもウィルスの保持者であるという事には変わりありませんので、感染後5日かつ解熱後2日が経過するまではしっかりと療養するようにしましょう。

ただ、自宅療養が可能なのはハイリスク群ではないという事が大前提にあります。ハイリスク群ではなくても、特別な症状が見られたり、症状が重いようであれば病院に行く必要があるという事を覚えておきましょう。

病院に行く必要があるケース

先述でも触れましたが、まずハイリスク群の方は必ず病院に行くようにしましょう。ハイリスク群には次のような方が挙げられます。

  • 乳幼児や児童
  • 高齢者
  • 妊娠中の人
  • 基礎疾患などの持病を持っている人
  • 生活習慣病などで日頃から薬を使っている人
  • ある症状があらわれているケース

これらのケースについて、なぜ病院に行く必要があるのか、またどのように病院を選べばよいのかを説明していきましょう。

乳幼児や児童

乳幼児や児童は大人と違って免疫力や抵抗力が低いということは一般的にも知られていることです。特に感染症などの病気では重病化しやすい年代でもあります。

開業医や病院の診察課に小児科というものがあるのは、それだけ子供には子供の治療や処置が必要だからという事です。

乳幼児は子供の中でも特に免疫機能が備わりきっていませんので、速やかに病院で診察や治療をしてもらう必要があります。感染症や合併症を引き起こしやすいこともその理由です。

診察してもらうには先ほどの小児科か病院の小児科がいいでしょう。できれば入院設備の整った病院で診察を受けるのがいいでしょう。

高齢者

高齢者にとってインフルエンザは人生最後の灯火を消し去る悪病といわれています。それほどインフルエンザでの致死率が高いのが高齢者です。高齢になればなるほど免疫力や抵抗力が低下しているのに加え、十分な体力がないことがその要因といわれています。

自分は年寄りじゃないなどと言わず、素直に病院で診察してもらいましょう。年の功を言うのであれば、「老いては若きに従え」です。重病化する前に早く治療してもらうのが大切です。

また、インフルエンザワクチンが最も有効だとされる年代も高齢者です。予め体内に抗ウィルス免疫環境を整えることができるので、体力や抵抗力の比較的低い高齢者には最善の予防法と言われています。自治体によっては医療補助制度を設けているところも多くありますので、一度役場で聞いてみるのもいいでしょう。

掛かりつけの医者があるときには普段から薬を使っていると思います。インフルエンザでは使用できる薬が限られていますので、自分のことをよく知っているお医者さんに診察してもらうという事も大切です。

妊娠中の人

ハイリスク群の中で最も重大な合併症や感染症に感染する恐れがあるのが、妊婦さんとお腹の中の赤ちゃんです。

妊娠中の方はインフルエンザの恐れがある場合には必ず速やかに病院に行って診察してもらいましょう。普段かかっている産婦人科にまず電話をして、診察してもらう病院を紹介してもらうといいでしょう。いきなり産婦人科に行くと他の妊婦さんたちもいますので、まずは電話をすることが大切です。

また、症状が重いようなら迷わず救急センター(119番)に電話して、妊娠中であることとインフルエンザかもしれないという事を伝えましょう。

基礎疾患者など

基礎疾患者がインフルエンザにかかると、その疾患症状によっては重病化する可能性が高くなります。例えば糖尿病やHIVを発症していたり膠原病にかかっている方は健常者に比べて極端に免疫力が低い場合が多いです。

また、基礎疾患を抱えているという事は常用薬があるという事になりますが、この常用薬が思わぬインフルエンザへの悪影響を及ぼしてしまう事もあります。例えば鎮痛成分や解熱成分を含んでいる薬を常用していた場合、インフルエンザではこれらの効果がウィルスの増殖を助長してしまう事があります。

急な症状の変化にも対応してもらえるように、必ず掛かりつけの医者に連絡をして診察してもらうか診察してもらう病院を紹介してもらうようにしましょう。

ある症状があらわれているケース

健常者であったりワクチンの接種を受けたりしていても、次の症状があらわれている時には必ず病院に診察を受けに行くことを強く勧めておきます。

子供の場合
呼吸が乱れている・呼吸困難になっている・顔色が優れない・下痢や嘔吐がある・症状が治まらない

大人の場合
呼吸が大きく乱れている・呼吸困難になっている・下痢や嘔吐がある・発熱が続く・胸の痛みがある・症状が治まらない

このような場合には体の免疫機能が正常に機能していない場合があります。体の免疫機能が正常に作用しないと合併症や感染症の恐れも出てきます。このような場合には速やかに診察を受け、医師の診断に従うようにしましょう。

一生インフルエンザにかからない体質の作り方
村上 一裕
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まとめ:自宅療養は飽くまで軽度の場合

インフルエンザに感染した時に病院に行く必要があるかどうかと言えば、診察してもらったほうが良いに決まっていますが、飽くまで症状が軽くハイリスク群などにあてはまらない時は、自宅療養でも回復ができるという事もまたお分かりいただけたと思います。

自分の状況を判断して、適切な手段をとって病院に行くようにすることが、インフルエンザを早く軽く乗り越えるためのポイントだという事をしっかりと掴んでおきましょう。

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Check Also

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