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風邪で寝込む女性
風邪で寝込む女性

油断禁物。ぶり返す熱とインフルエンザの波に要注意

インフルエンザの女性

乾燥した季節になると、高齢者や子供はいろいろな病気にかかりやすくなってしまいます。
その最大の原因は「ウイルス」。乾燥した冷たい空気が大好物のウイルスは、ほっておくとどんどん増え続けてきます。

それと同時に気をつけたいのが「熱のぶり返し」と「インフルエンザのぶり返し」です。風邪等との合併症でぶり返すこともありますし、また熱が下がったあとに再び感染してしまいインフルエンザを再発することもあります。

どうじに、気をつけたいのが「インフルエンザの波」によるぶり返しです。インフルエンザの流行は一度にくるのではなく、何度かの波となって訪れます。一度罹患すれば抗体ができているはずと思うと危険なのが、この「インフルエンザの波」なのです。

この記事では、インフルエンザで熱がぶり返すその原因と対処法について書きます。

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軽症のインフルエンザはぶり返しやすい

インフルエンザの男

インフルエンザは1日から3日程度の潜伏期間を経て、ついで4日間程度の間長い全身症状がでます。具体的には40度に近い高熱、関節痛、寒気などが全身にくまなく襲い掛かる症状です。

しかし、インフルエンザの種類や、かかりかたによっては38度前後の熱ですみ、比較的軽症の症状ですむことがあります。

ところが、こうしたインフルエンザは熱が下がったあとに、再び熱をぶり返すことがままるのです。なぜ熱をぶり返してしまうのかといえば、実は熱が十分に上がらなかったため、ウイルスが十分に排出されず、ウイルスが体内に残っていたものが突然変異して再び暴れだしてしまうことがあるのです。

ぶり返しの理由

インフルエンザは大抵熱が下がったあとであっても、完全にウイルスが体内からいなくなることは稀です。インフルエンザの熱は大変つらいものですが、ウイルスの活動を弱め、体内の新陳代謝を促す働きがあります。これが十分にできないと、ウイルスが元気なまま体内に残存してしまうということがあるのです。

インフルエンザ流行の波

インフルエンザは多く大陸で豚や鳥などに感染し、突然変異を繰り返すことでヒトにも感染するウイルスに変貌することが多いようです。しかし、インフルエンザの突然変異は一度に起こるわけではなく、数度にわけて数種類のインフルエンザウイルスが発生するのです。時期が近接しているためインフルエンザにかかったとしても、比較的近い種類のウイルスであるため、抗体があれば罹患は避けられます。

しかし、インフルエンザの波によっては前のウイルスとは違った種類のウイルスが発生することがあるのです。そして、インフルエンザに罹患し、熱が下がった直後の体力が大きく下がった時期を見計らって、新しいインフルエンザウイルスがやってくる可能性があるのです。

このようなインフルエンザの波は世界規模で様々な機関が監視しています。インフルエンザに罹患したくない場合には、常に目を光らせておくことが求められるでしょうね。

インフルエンザのぶり返しを防ぐ方法

それでは、インフルエンザのぶり返しを防ぐにはどうしたらよいのでしょうか。インフルエンザにはそもそも特効薬はなく、解熱剤もアスピリンなどは使わない方がよいと言われています。むしろ、解熱剤を飲まずに高熱によってしっかりウイルスを退治したほうがよいという医師もいます。

インフルエンザの熱がぶり返した場合であっても、同様に解熱剤などを飲まずに再度体力が戻るまでしっかり安静にしていることが求められます。プラシーボとよばれる実効性の低い薬を飲むことで回復するというケースもあります。

インフルエンザの熱で体内の栄養素が大幅に失われているため、ぶり返し後の熱のほうが高熱になってしまうことも少なくありません。まずはしっかりと栄養補給を行い、安静にすることが求められます。ハチミツれもんや、だいこんのすりおろし、ネギなどが有効です。

しかしながら、ぶり返しが起きた場合には一度医療機関の診断を受けるほうがよいでしょう。「インフルエンザの次の波」で再度罹患した場合には、実はタミフルが効く可能性があるのです。タミフルは熱をさげる効果があり、本来は感染後48時間以内に服用しなければ効果はないとされていますが、ぶり返しのインフルエンザウイルスにたいしてはまだ高い効果を発揮する可能性があるのです。

まとめ:ぶり返しても慌てずに診断へ

インフルエンザに罹患後、一度下がった熱が再びぶり返すことが少なくありません。インフルエンザの感染後の熱を下げることが求められる時には、プラシーボの薬を飲むのもよいでしょう。

ともあれ、一度は医療機関の診断を受けるほうが無難です。

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