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握手、医者、研究者、ビジネスマン、仕事、男

幼児へのアスピリン投与はダメ絶対。幼児のインフルエンザに対する対処法

医者

大人にとってはただの発熱が続くつらい病気であるインフルエンザ。
実は幼児にとっては大変恐ろしい病気になってしまうことがあるのです。

3歳未満の時期にかかるインフルエンザでは、「インフルエンザ脳症」と呼ばれる恐ろしい合併症があることはすでによく知られていますが、薬との飲み合わせによっては15歳未満程度まで使える薬にも大幅な制約があります。

それは「アスピリン」に対する注意です。アスピリンは解熱剤としてひろく使われており、成人がインフルエンザに罹患した場合にも処方されます。

ところが、このアスピリンをインフルエンザに罹患してしまった子供に投与してはいけません。さらに、アスピリン以外の解熱剤においても慎重投与が望ましいとされることが少なくありません。

この記事ではインフルエンザとアスピリンの関係についてご紹介いたします。

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インフルエンザとアスピリンとの関係

医者の男

アスピリンは歴史の古い薬で、解熱鎮痛剤として長年つかわれてきました。熱を引き起こす「プロスタグランジン」という物質の整合性を抑制し、血管内部で血液が固着するのを防ぐ役割も持っています。

大人の風邪にも使われ、また脳梗塞や心筋梗塞の治療にも用いられています

ただし、副作用は様々な物が確認されており、解熱剤で喘息を起こしたことがある人や、子供のインフルエンザ、そして胃潰瘍などの消化性潰瘍がある人も投与は避けるようにといわれています。

市販薬にも含まれていることがあるため、非常に広くつかわれているのですが、特に子供のインフルエンザにおいて利用することは固く禁じられています。

インフルエンザ脳症とライ症候群

ではなぜアスピリンは子供のインフルエンザに利用してはいけないのでしょうか。それは、アスピリンのような「サリチル酸系製剤」と呼ばれるタイプの解熱剤がライ症候群との関係があるとされているのです。厚生省医薬安全局が提供する情報にも米国における研究を引きながら、アスピリンを子供に投与しないように警告しています。

ライ症候群とは、小児において極めてまれに水痘,インフルエンザ等のウイルス性疾患の後,激しい嘔吐,意識障害,痙攣(急性脳浮腫)と肝臓ほか諸臓器の脂肪沈着,ミトコンドリア変形,各血液数値の急激な上昇,高アンモニア血症,低プロトロンビン血症,低血糖等の症状が短期間に発現する高死亡率の病態です。

インフルエンザ脳症とよく似た症状を起こし、死亡率は非常に高い病気です。

米国では、このライ症候群がアスピリン系解熱剤の投与を控えるようになってから大幅に減ったことが知られています。現在では日本でも比較的アスピリンによる解熱剤は少なくなりましたが、「バファリン」や「セデス」などの市販の解熱剤は使わないようにしましょう。

インフルエンザ脳症は幼児期にかかるものですが、ライ症候群は15歳未満の小児に見られます。15歳未満までの児童にはインフルエンザにかかったときのアスピリンの服用は避けるようにしましょう。

さらに、最近ではインフルエンザ時におけるアスピリンの投与は大人や高齢者であっても避けることがよいとも言われています。

インフルエンザ時に利用できる解熱剤

それでは、インフルエンザ時にはどのような解熱剤を利用すればよいのでしょうか。

アスピリンは「サリチル酸製剤」と呼ばれる解熱剤ですが、他のタイプの解熱剤もインフルエンザ時にはよくないと言われています。
ここでは他に利用しやすい「アセトアミノフェン」を主な成分とするものを使うのがよいでしょう。

小児用バファリン

子供に使える小児用バファリンは、ライオン製薬がつくっている薬です。
主成分をアセトアミノフェンとして、子供にもよく効きます。フレーバーが異なる「小児用バファリンCⅡ」やチュアブルタイプの「小児用バファリンチュアブル」があります。
どちらも有効成分は変わりません。15歳未満までのお子さんには普通のバファリンではなくこちらを使いましょう。

タイレノール

タイレノールは、空腹時にも飲める頭痛薬ですが、解熱鎮痛剤としても効果があります。小児用バファリンと同じくアセトアミノフェンを主成分としており、眠くなる成分が含まれていません。大人の薬とされていますが、12歳以上の子供の解熱剤としても利用できます。

安心の頑丈な包装で、比較的使用期間も長く信頼性の高い薬です。

まとめ:インフルエンザにアスピリンは厳禁

以上のように子供のインフルエンザにアスピリンを投与するとインフルエンザ脳症の発症また、ライ症候群の発症といった恐ろしい副作用が起こりうるのです。

そうならないためには、アスピリンではなく、アセトアミノフェンを主成分とする解熱剤を飲ませるのが良いでしょう。小児用の薬をしっかり飲ませるようにすれば大丈夫です。

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