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医者の男
医者の男

インフルエンザは型の違いを理解して対策を!ウイルスのab違いにご用心

医者の男

冬の寒い時期になってきました。この時期には乾燥しやすく気温も低いため、他の病気にもかかりやすいことは間違いありません。

インフルエンザは細菌性ではなく、インフルエンザウイルスと呼ばれるウイルスによって発生します。一度罹患してしまうとなかなか治すことができず、一週間から二週間ほどの安静が必要になります。

そうならないためには、インフルエンザワクチンを使って予防接種を行うのが効果的です。

しかし、ここで気をつけないと行けないのはインフルエンザには型があり、毎年流行する型には違いがあるのです。

この記事では、インフルエンザの型、とくにab違いやc型の形についてご説明いたします。

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インフルエンザとその型

インフルエンザの女性

インフルエンザには型があり、それぞれ発生源や流行時期、症状などに違いがあります。毎年同じ型が流行することは稀で、抗体がことなるため、型が違うインフルエンザウイルスは別の病気として認識されてしまいます。

そのため、インフルエンザウイルスのワクチンも型違いのものを使う必要があります。インフルエンザの予防接種が2回薦められるのもそういう原因があるのですね。

インフルエンザウイルスにはA型、B型、C型があり、さらに突然変異型が複数あります。もっとも多いのはA型とB型で、交互に流行が来ることがあります。

インフルエンザA型

A型インフルエンザウイルスの特徴について説明いたします。
A型インフルエンザウイルスの中にも多数の種類がありますが、日本でよく知られているのがH1N1型と、人や鳥類、馬、豚などに感染します。人に感染しないものもありますが、家畜類に罹患して世界的流行が起こることがよくあります。

感染力が極めて強く突然変異を行いながら爆発的な感染(pandemic;パンデミック)をします。こちらが流行すると大変なことになり、またワクチンの効きもよくありません。冬季から春にかけて流行しますが、ウイルスに対する免疫の持続も非常に短いことが知られています。

インフルエンザB型

インフルエンザB型も人に感染し高熱を発します。A型に比べるとそれほど多くの種類はなく、また感染力も強くありません。複数のインフルエンザウイルスが確認されていますが、A型ほど突然変異を引き起こすことが少ないと言われています。

こちらは遺伝子的に安定したウイルスであるため、ワクチンによる抗体が非常によく効きます。症状はA型に比べて軽いというわけではありませんが、治療が比較的容易で治りやすいことで知られています。

C型インフルエンザ

Ab型とは大きく性質の異なるインフルエンザウイルスで、インフルエンザの仲間には普通いれません。しかし、四歳以下の乳幼児、幼児の多くが感染します。ほとんどは表立った症状を発症させることはありませんが、稀にC型インフルエンザ疾患と呼ばれる症状を引き起こすことがあります。一生涯C型インフルエンザを体内に持ち続けるヒトも少なくありません。人以外には感染することはありません。

インフルエンザのab違いに注意

それでは、インフルエンザのab違いを知った上で、どのように対処すればよいのかをご説明いたします。

インフルエンザは、型の違いによらず特効薬は開発されていません。インフルエンザの治療に有効とされているのが「タミフル」と「リレンザ」という薬ですが、これらの薬は罹患から48時間以内に服用しないと意味がありません。

特にA型に罹患した場合は、体内にいるウイルスがさらに突然変異を引き起こす可能性があり、病状が長期化する怖れがあります。B型の場合にはそこまで症状が重篤化することは少ないようですが、どちらのインフルエンザに罹患したのか聞いておくと よいでしょう。

とはいえ、対応策に違いがあるわけではありません。ウイルスに感染しないよう、日頃からの対策が重要です。

湿度と気温を保つ

湿度と気温を適切にコントロールすることで、インフルエンザの予防と治療に大きな効果をあげることができます。ウイルスは乾燥した空気でしか生きていけないため、僅かでも湿度をあげることができれば、ウイルス撃退に効果的な環境を作ることができます。

また、マスクをかけることも効果があります。

インフルエンザワクチンはいらない (双葉新書)
母里 啓子
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まとめ:インフルエンザのab違いの型を知って対策を

インフルエンザはab型で、流行の程度や症状、治りやすさなどが違います。A型で罹患した場合には突然変異株も多いため、症状が重く長期化しやすい傾向があります。一方でB型はそれほど大きな流行はみせず、ワクチンも有効だとされています。

型による違いはありますが、基本的な対処法は変わりません。湿度や気温を調整し、あたたかい環境でゆっくりと長期の療養をとるようにしてください。

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Check Also

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  インフルエンザと症状のよく …

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