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原因によって異なる様々な不眠症の治し方について

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不眠症の治し方はその不眠症の原因に着目して考えることが大切です。例えば、うつ病などが原因で不眠症を発症している場合には、不眠症の治し方としては薬物の投与などが中心となります。本稿では、不眠症の原因に着目し、不眠症の治し方をまとめています。

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不眠症の諸症状

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不眠症では、なかなか眠ることができないという入眠障害が代表的なものとして上げることができます。しかし、不眠症は単に眠ることが困難という症状だけではなく、眠ってもすぐに目が覚めてしまうという症状(中途覚醒)や逆に睡眠時間が長くなりすぎてしまうという症状(過眠症)などがあります。不眠症には様々な症状があります。また、これらの不眠症の諸症状によって悩まされておられる方も非常に多いと言われます。

厚生労働省の把握では、日本人の約20パーセントは何らかの不眠症を患っていると言われます。

このように不眠症の症状は多様であり、また、不眠症で悩まれる方が多いことから、不眠症の治し方としても実に様々なものがあります。

不眠症の治し方のポイント

不眠症の治し方としては、精神的な病気が原因である場合とストレスなどにより自律神経の乱れがある場合とで、不眠症の治し方のポイントは異なってきます。

まず、不眠症は原因がはっきりしていて生じる場合があります。それが精神的な病気が原因となっているケースの不眠症です。例えば、うつ病・統合失調症などによる不眠症の場合です。これらの精神的な疾患が原因で不眠症となってしまっている場合、その不眠症の治し方の中心は薬物療法が中心となることになります。

精神的な疾患がある場合には、不眠症自体よりも、その背後にある精神的な疾患の治療が中心となるためです。具体的な不眠症の治し方は医師の判断によることになりますが、一般的にはSSRI(選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害剤)と呼ばれるグループの薬が処方されることが多い傾向があります。

一方で、ストレスなどにより一時的に自律神経の働きが乱れてしまっており、不眠症となっている場合、その不眠症の治し方としては、副交感神経の働きを優位にすることが不眠症の治し方のポイントとなることになります。

副交感神経の働きを優位にするための具体的方法

副交感神経は精神的なリラックスをつかさどっている自律神経です。通常の場合、夜になったり、疲労がたまったりしてくると副交感神経の働きが優位となり、眠気が生じることとなります。

しかし、精神的なストレスが蓄積してくると(なお、ストレスは必ずしも自分自身で認識することができない場合もあります)副交感神経が優位にならず、交感神経(興奮や覚醒をつかさどる自律神経)が活発なままで不眠症となることになります。

そこで、ストレスなどがある場合には、不眠症の治し方としては副交感神経の働きを優位にするという方法がとられることとなります。

副交感神経の働きを優位にする不眠症の治し方とは、要は、精神的にリラックスをするという方法です。具体的には以下のような方法が挙げられます。

  • 飲み物に注意すること-コーヒーや緑茶などのカフェインを控える。また、ホットミルク、カモミールティーなど精神的にリラックスをすることができるものを飲むこと。お酒は控えること(お酒は入眠には役立ちますが、深く眠ることができなくなります)
  • 生活リズムに注意すること-起床後に太陽の光を10分以上浴びること。これによってセロトニン・メラトニンという睡眠促進物質が作られて、夜に眠くなるというリズムが形成されやすくなります。起床後はラジオ体操をされるなどが良いと言えるでしょう。
  • 薬物療法-不眠症の治し方として、ストレスなどによる不眠症に対しても、薬物による治療法は有用です。ストレスなどで眠れない場合に不眠症の治し方として、気軽に医師に相談されることがおすすめです

そして、不眠症の治し方として最終的には、ストレスの原因を突き止めてそれを解消することが大切となります。ご自身の生活やお仕事の環境などを顧みられてストレスの原因を突き止めて解消されることが何よりの不眠症の治し方ということができます。

いずれにしても、不眠症の症状が長引かれる場合には、一度は精神科・心療内科等の診療を受けられることがおすすめできます。不眠症の治し方としては様々なものがありますが、その原因を突き止めつつ、ご自身に合った不眠症の治し方を発見するためにも専門医の診断は非常に効果的です。

まとめ:不眠症の治し方のポイントのまとめ

以上、本文で述べました不眠症の治し方のポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 不眠症の治し方としては、その原因が精神的な疾患が原因か、ストレスなどによる自律神経の乱れが原因かという観点から分けて考えることが有用です。  
  • 不眠症の原因がうつ病や統合失調症などの精神的な疾患にある場合には、不眠症の治し方の中心は薬物療法になります。また、不眠症の治し方というよりも背後にある病気を治すことが中心となります
  • 不眠症の原因がストレスなどによる場合には副交感神経の働きを優位にすることが不眠症の治し方としては効果的です。つまり、精神的にリラックスをすることが不眠症の治し方の中心となります。

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