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小学生の子供
小学生の子供

子供の極度の人見知りの症状や将来

子供海

性格的に現在の社会で「生きにくい」というタイプの方々がおられます。決して病気や知能の問題ではなく、性格の問題として現在の社会では生きていくのが困難となる性格の方を広い意味で発達障害といいます。発達障害の方の場合には、早いうちに専門的な対処法(療育)をすることで性格を社会に適応しやすいものとしたり、逆に生まれつきの性格をいっそう活かすことにもつながります。

そして、発達障害を早期に発見するためのおおきなポイントが極度の人見知りという症状です。

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子供が極度な人見知りをするとき

子供

子供は大人に比べて警戒心が強いのが特徴です。経験が少なく、心身ともに未発達ですので子供がある程度人見知りをすることは自然なことです。(またある程度人見知りであることが誘拐などに対する防衛となるということもできます)

しかし、子供の人見知りが極度の場合、まれのその極度の人見知りが発達障害の一症状である場合もありえます。

発達障害とは

発達障害とは、広い意味で社会で生きにくい性格・特徴を持っていることをさします。例えば極端な神経質な性格であったり、知能や性格に問題がないのにどうしても二桁以上の足し算・引き算ができないという場合などが発達障害にあたります。障害と言う呼び方はしますが、何らかの病気ではなく、性格や生まれつきの特徴のために社会的に生きにくい成長をしてしまう方が発達障害です。

発達障害の場合、神経質な性格などの明確な症状が判明するのがある程度大人になってからの場合があり、その場合には治療が遅くなってしまうことがあります。極度な人見知りは発達障害の方の場合、相当早いうちに症状として現れることがありますので、発達障害の早期発見の一つの指針となります。

では、発達障害を持った子供の場合には、具体的にはどのような人見知りの症状が現れるのでしょうか。

幼児期の人見知りの症状

発達障害を持った子が子供の頃に現す極度な人見知り症状としては以下のような症状が現れます。

まず、1歳児の頃に人の目を見ない、親以外の人間にほとんど興味を示さないなどのサインが現れます。一般的には1歳児の頃は外部への関心が強くなり、さまざまなものに興味を持ち出す時期です。しかし、発達障害の子の場合には、外部への興味・関心を示さず、人に対する関心が極めて薄いものとなります。

その後、幼稚園・保育園に入る頃になると極度な人見知りの症状が具体的に現れてきます。例えば、全く集団で遊ばない、初めて会う人とは全く口をきかないなど人見知りの症状が極端になっていきます。

人見知り以外でも、例えば、新しいことを覚えることが極度に苦手である一方で、自分自身が好きな物事(例えばアニメや昆虫、恐竜など)に対しては極度に関心が強く熱中するなどとなります。

発達障害がはっきりとしてくるのは小学校高学年から思春期の頃からです。極度の人見知りから対人関係がうまくいかなくなったり、会話が噛み合わなくなるなどして周囲との齟齬が生じてきます。

いずれにしても早いうちに発達障害であることを発見する大きなサインとなるのが極度の人見知りの症状ですので、このサインを見逃さないようにしたいものです。

発達障害の治療と将来の仕事

発達障害と判明した場合にはなるべく早めに専門の「療育」を受けることが効果的です。小さい頃から小さな集団などでの専門的な療育を受けることで人見知りをするなどの発達障害の症状を軽くして周囲への適応力が高いものとなります。

発達障害は極度の人見知りが続くなどしてしまうため、たしかに社会的に生活することが困難になりやすいと言えます。しかし、一方で自分自身の症状に適応した職場や仲間にめぐり合うことでかえってその能力を発揮するというケースもあります。

例えば、極端な神経質の方である場合、一切の例外がない機械的作業を黙々とこなすという仕事で極めて高い能力を発揮する場合があります。逆に、無理矢理に社会に適合させようとするとかえってうつ病などにかかってしまうことがあります。

発達障害の方は単に「生きにくい」というだけで「生きられない」というわけでは全くありません。大切なことは極度の人見知りなどの症状から早く発達障害であることを見抜いて対応をしてあげるということが重要となってきます。

まとめ:発達障害のサインは極度の人見知り

以上、本文で述べました発達障害と子供の人見知りについての関係をまとめますと以下のように言うことができます。

  • 発達障害とは、性格的に現在の社会で生きにくい性質を持ってしまっている方をさします。例えば極端な神経質であったり、特定の学習だけがどうしてもままならないというようなケースがあります
  • 発達障害の場合、早期に現れる症状として極度な人見知りという症状があります。子供が極度な人見知りをする場合には発達障害の可能性を考えることも子供の将来のためには重要と言えます
  • 発達障害は、極度の人見知りなどで社会で「生きにくい」ものとはなりますが、逆に、その性格を活かして活躍できるケースもあります。早めに発達障害を見抜き、その対処をすることがとても大切です

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