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犬の人見知りの仕組みと治し方

犬はな

いつもは家族の一員としてあなたの心を支えてくれているわんちゃんが、お客様が来たときだけ怒ったように、怯えた様に吠えて止まらなくなる。あわてますよね。

出張や、どうしても泊りがけになってしまう外出のときに、誰かに預けるのも可哀想になりますし、動物病院に入院させるのも躊躇ってしまいます。お客様を家にお招きするのも気がひけるようになったら、もったいないです。

でも犬が人見知りをするのには訳があります。そして治し方もあります。
あなたが大事に育てているわんちゃんの性格に問題があるのではないという事を知るところから始めましょう。

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犬が人見知りするのには理由があります

丸犬

余り知られておらず、また意識することもないと思いますが犬は人間を「この生物はホモ・サピエンス」とは認識していません。極端な言い方をすれば「飼い主と、それ以外の生物」と理解しています。

人見知り、というと人間でいう引っ込み思案とか社交性の度合いの問題に捉えがちですが、犬の立場で言えば「人見知り」ではなく「自分と飼い主以外の未知の生物に対する恐怖」です。人見知りの激しい犬は、その機会がないだけで牛や馬に対してもひどく怖がり吠えるはずです。

この恐怖を感じる度合いは子犬の頃の躾で大きく軽減されますが、その前に「犬は何に対して恐怖を覚えるか」を知ってください。

犬は本能的に自分よりも高い位置から見おろしてくる相手を強く警戒して怖がります。自分の背中よりも高い所からの攻撃は防げないという事を本能で知っているからです。そして当たり前ですが、人間の目の位置は犬よりもはるかに高いところにあって、わんちゃんから見るとお客様は常に自分を見下ろす位置から登場する未知の生物という事になります。

犬の人見知りの原因、実はシンプルなんですよ。
未知の生物に、死角から覗き込まれているから、怖い。当たり前ですよね。

犬の人見知りを防ぐ/治す3つのコツ

もしあなたの飼い犬が激しい人見知りをしたとしても、それはその子の性格がキツいからでも頭が悪いからでもありません。
ちょっとした訓練を受けていないだけ。十分な時間と愛情をかければ人見知りは軽減されます。

お友達に協力してもらいましょう。

小型犬が、お客様が来たときに抱きつく様に立ち上がってお客様の顔に自分の顔を近づけようとする姿を見たことはありませんか?
ちょっと残念ですが歓迎のキスをしようとしている訳ではありません。あの行為は、お客様と自分の目の高さをあわせて「怖くない」ことを確認しているんです。

犬の人見知りを直すには、まず飼い主のあなた以外の方の協力が必要になります。わんちゃんが怖がらない距離から、しゃがんで目の高さをあわせて「怖くないよ」と安心させて下さい。

この時に仮に吠えたとしても、飼い主さんは叱らないで下さい。その理由はまた後に書きますが、まずは協力してくれるお友達に「そんなに怖がらなくても大丈夫だよ」という態度を示してもらうことが一番大切です。

そしてわんちゃんが「怖くない?」と自分から近寄るまでは追いかけたり触ったりしないで「おいでおいで」だけしてあげて下さい。必ず「怖くない?」と自分から確かめに行きます。

怖がっている時に叱るのはやめましょう。

お客様に対してわんちゃんが吠えている時に、飼い主さんが大きな声で叱咤するのを時折見かけます。これは人見知りの改善にはマイナスにしかなりません。

基本的に、犬は人の言葉の意味を理解できません。「お手」「お座り」「だめ」などを理解できる頭のいい子もいますが、それはわんちゃんもリラックスしているとき。平常心の時です。

知らない人に吠えかかっている時、わんちゃんは怖くて仕方がない状態です。その時に飼い主さんから大声を出されたらどう反応するでしょう?
実は「もっと警戒しろ、追い払え」という命令にしか聞こえなくなります。これは犬同士の群れの中での伝達方法と混同してしまっているから。犬が群れで暮らしている時に敵が現れたら、リーダーは敵に激しく吠え立てます。他の犬はそれに同調してさらに吠え立てて敵を追い払います。

怖くてリラックスできなくなっている状態で、飼い主さんが大きな声を出したら「自分も、もっと吠えなきゃ」と思ってしまうのが本能なのです。

ではどうしたらいいでしょう?
「怖くないよ」と普通に話しかけて(わんちゃんからみて)お客様から守るように抱きとめてあげてください。「怖がる必要も、吠える必要もないんだよ」と安心させてあげれば、犬は「本当に?」と自分から確かめに行きます。

気長に訓練しましょう。

先にも書きましたが、犬は飼い主さんを「お客様と同じ、人間の中の1人」とは認識していません。飼い主さん以外は全部、異種で未知の生物です。特に人見知りの激しいわんちゃんには、何回も何回も、いろんな人に協力をお願いしながら「怖がらなくても大丈夫」と繰り返し覚えさせる必要があります。

協力してくれたお友達1人をクリアしたから、もう誰が相手でも大丈夫。とはなりません。

子犬は比較的短期間で訓練の成果が出てきますが、成犬になってからは少し時間がかかります。怖い思いをした期間が長いほど、慣れるのにも時間がかかるのです。それでも「大丈夫だよー」と伝え続ければ、少しづつ人見知りは軽減していきます。

犬が私たちをパートナーに選んだわけ
阪急コミュニケーションズ (2014-02-10)
売り上げランキング: 12,263

気長に訓練しましょう。

飼っているワンちゃんが、もしも人見知りの激しいコだったら。軽減させてあげることはワンちゃんにとっても飼い主の方にとっても大きなプラスになります。
犬のしつけ、というと厳しく向き合うというイメージがありますが、実は犬のストレス軽減のためにとってもプラスになる事がほとんどです。

人と犬とのつきあいは長い長い歴史があります。ほとんどのトラブルは、もう解決策が見つけ出されています。正しい知識で対応すれば解決できます。
きちんとしたしつけで、「自慢のワンちゃん」と「頼りになるリーダー」の良い関係が永く永く続きますように。

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