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あなたのはもしかして疲労性腰痛?意外に知らない腰痛の種類と原因

目

もっとも多い腰痛の原因は、筋肉の疲労です。背中から腰の筋肉(脊柱起立筋)は、臥時以外は上体が倒れないように常に働いています。この筋肉が、凝って硬くなり、だるい鈍痛を発するのが、筋疲労性腰痛あるいは姿勢性腰痛です。一口に腰痛と言っても、腰痛になる原因によって種類が分けられます。まず、自分の腰痛の種類を知って、その腰痛にあった改善方法を探しましょう。

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腰痛の種類

見て

1.筋肉・靭帯による腰痛

疲労性腰痛
筋肉はまだ傷ついていないので、治り易いのですが、筋肉疲労の原因となる過度の腰への負担や悪い姿勢を改善し、背筋や腹筋を徐々に強化しなければ、また再発します。痛みは 1回の治療でかなり取れます。全治には2~3回の治療で、およそ2週間かかります。予防には、日頃のストレッチや体操が効果的です。

筋膜性腰痛
腰を支える筋肉が損傷を受けているのですから、筋線維を再生する必要があります。痛みが強い場合は、安静にして筋肉を十分に休める必要があります。患部には湿布をし、足 先が冷たくなっていたら、足を温めてください。治療は5~8回必要です。全治には、3~4週間かかります。

ギックリ腰
起きることも歩くことも出来ない程の痛みを伴います。 こ のような場合は、最低3日間は絶対安静にしてくだい。動作だけでなく、くしゃみや咳などで腰に力 が入るだけで激痛が走ります。やはり、患部に湿布をし、足先が冷たくなっていたら、足を温めてく ださい。治療は安静後、多少動けるようになってから行います。治療は5~8回で、全治には3~4 週間かかります。

2.神経・血管が関与する腰痛

坐骨神経痛
このタイプの腰痛は坐骨神経痛などのように、足にも痛みが生ずるのが特徴です。坐骨神経痛は、 太ももの外側や脛に突っ張るような嫌な痛みを感じ、温めると痛みが緩和されます。また、仰向けに寝て足をまっすぐに伸ばすと痛みが憎悪し、膝を曲げるか、横向きになり身体を丸くすると、痛みが軽減します。

3.骨・椎間板が原因の腰痛

脊柱管狭窄症
腰椎後部にある神経の通り道である脊柱管が変形し狭くなり、そこを通る神経を圧迫することによって、腰や下肢に痛みを発します。数十メートル歩きだすと、痛みと脱力を感じ 歩行困難になるが、しゃがんで休むとまた歩けるようになるのが脊柱管狭窄症の特徴です。排尿や排便の障害を起こすこともあります。

椎間板ヘルニア
二〇才代に多く、ほとんどが四〇才以下での発症です。椎間板から髄核がはみ出し、坐骨神経を圧迫して痛みを発します。動けない程の激しい痛みで、太ももなどに知覚鈍麻を起こすこともあります。最低三日間は絶対安静です。いくらか動けるようになったら治療開始です。

疲労性腰痛の治し方

腰痛の中でも一番なりやすく、治りやすい腰痛です。姿勢を改善し、腹筋と背筋をつけるストレッチを毎日行う事で、腰痛予防と再発を防げます。

腰痛ストレッチ

イスに座ったままの同じ姿勢で長時間仕事をしていると、腰の筋肉は硬くなり、筋力も衰え、血行も悪くなります。 筋肉が弱ると上半身を支えている力が全て腰の骨にかかり、骨に障害が発生し、腰痛の原因となります。仕事の合間のストレッチ体操は腰痛を改善することにとても有効です。 軽いストレッチで固まった筋肉をほぐし、血行を良くし、新陳代謝を高め、腰痛を改善しましょう。

☆腰と背中を伸ばす体操

①イスに浅く腰掛けて股を開き、背筋を伸ばし、息を深く吸い込む。
②息を吐きながらゆっくりと、頭が両足の間に入るぐらいに上半身を曲げ、3つ数えてゆっくりと上半身を戻す。

☆上半身を伸ばす体操

①イスに深く腰掛け、背筋・両腕・肘を充分に伸ばす。
②息を吸いながら上半身をゆっくり後ろに反らせていく。
③息を止めて3つ数えたら、息を吐きながら元の姿勢に戻す。

☆腰と太ももの裏を伸ばす体操

①イスに深く腰掛け、左ひざを両手で抱えて胸につけるくらいにまで引き上げる。
②3つ数えたら、ひざを下ろす。右足も同様に。

☆腰の筋肉を伸ばす体操

①あお向けになり、両手を頭の後ろで組む。
②右ひざを曲げ、そのまま下半身を左側にゆっくりひねっていく。右ひざを床につけるつもりで腰の筋肉を伸ばすようにそのまま数秒間静止し、ゆっくり元に戻し右ひざを伸ばす。左足も同様に。

☆背筋を伸ばす体操

①あお向けになって、お腹に力を入れ、両手で両ひざを思い切り抱え込み、約1分保つ。
②息を吐きながらゆっくりとひざを伸ばす。

☆全身を伸ばす体操

①両足を軽く開き、両手を床につけるつもりで、上半身を前に曲げる。脚(ひざ)の裏が伸びているのを意識する。
②腰に手をあて、上半身をゆっくりと思いっきり後ろに反らす。

☆ひざの裏側を伸ばす体操

①両足を伸ばして座る
②手の指先を足の先に届かせるつもりで、ゆっくりと上半身を前に倒していく。3つ数えて元に戻す。

自分で治せる腰痛・ひざ痛
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まとめ

いかがですか。この体操は簡単でどこでも出来ます。仕事の合間や夜寝る前に習慣にすると良いでしょう。腰痛の種類によって、治療方法は変わりますから、まず自分の腰痛の種類を知る事が大切です。

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