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握手、医者、研究者、ビジネスマン、仕事、男

そもそもヘルニアとは何か?ヘルニアの種類について

医師

ヘルニアには実にさまざまな種類があります。またその症状や危険度(生命への危険性)もヘルニアの種類ごとに異なります。ヘルニアというと腰痛などが連想されるのではないかと思われますが、実は腰痛をもたらす種類のヘルニア以外にもさまざまな種類のものがあります。本稿ではヘルニアの意義や種類などについて説明していきます。

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そもそもヘルニアとは?

仕事中の男

ヘルニアというと、腰の痛みや首筋の痛みなどを連想される方が多いのではないでしょうか。腰が痛むヘルニアは椎間板ヘルニア、首筋の痛みは頚椎ヘルニアといいます。
しかし、これ以外にもヘルニアにはさまざまな種類があります。例えば、食道裂孔ヘルニア・脳ヘルニア・鼠径ヘルニア・臍ヘルニアなどといったものです。

そもそもヘルニアとは、体内の臓器等が本来あるべき場所から別な場所に移動してしまっている状態のことを指します。臓器等の部位の異常を総称してヘルニアと呼びます。

例えば、よく知られている椎間板ヘルニアは、骨と骨の間のクッションの役割を果たす椎間板が飛び出してしまい神経を圧迫している状態を指します。このようにヘルニアとは体内の一部が体の外部・内部へ露出してしまっている状態を指すことになります。そして、多くの種類のヘルニアは激しい痛みなどを伴います。本来あるべき場所から臓器等が飛び出しているわけですから、痛みを感じるのは当然ということができます。

以下ではいくつかのヘルニアの種類についてご紹介していきます。

椎間板ヘルニア

ヘルニアの種類の中でもっともポピュラーなものと言えるのが椎間板ヘルニアです。椎間板ヘルニアは先ほども書きましたように、骨と骨の間のクッションである椎間板が飛び出てしまっていることを指します。

椎間板ヘルニアはほとんどが腰の骨の部分で痛みが生じます。原因は老化や激しい運動などです。

椎間板ヘルニアの治療は整形外科や接骨院などで行うことになります。

鼠径ヘルニア

次に挙げることができるヘルニアの種類としては鼠径ヘルニアがあります。鼠径ヘルニアは一般的には脱腸と呼ばれる種類のヘルニアです。
具体的な症状としては、腹部にある腹膜や腸の一部が飛び出してしまっている状態になります。(この状態を指して一般に鼠径ヘルニアは脱腸と呼ばれています)

鼠径ヘルニアは、頚椎ヘルニアと比べてやや危険度が高い種類のヘルニアということができます。つまり、鼠径ヘルニアの場合、放置しておくと患部が硬くなり(ヘルニアのカントン)命に関わってしまいます。鼠径ヘルニアは最終的には手術で治療する種類のヘルニアです。

食道裂孔ヘルニア(しょくどうれっこうヘルニア)

食道裂孔ヘルニアは食べ物の通り道である食堂と食べ物の行き先である胃に関わる種類のヘルニアです。私たちの体内は、食道→横隔膜→胃という順で形成されていますが、胃が横隔膜を飛び出て胸の部位まで達してしまっている状態を食道裂孔ヘルニアと呼びます。

食道裂孔ヘルニアは生まれつき・あるいは加齢による横隔膜の弱体化などにより生じます。また、肥満・喫煙者の方がかかりやすい傾向にある種類のヘルニアと言われます。

食道裂孔ヘルニアは、直接命に関わるようなことはあまりありませんが、食道がんの遠因
などの指摘があります。また、胸焼けなどを除きそれほど自覚症状がないのも食道裂孔の特徴と言えます。

脳ヘルニア

ヘルニアの種類の中でもっとも命に関わる危険なものと言える種類のヘルニアです。これは、頭蓋内にある脳が押し出されてしまう症状を伴うヘルニアです。頭蓋内ヘルニアとなってしまうと生命維持に必要な中枢(脳幹)を圧迫するので、呼吸・心臓の機能に重大な悪影響を及ぼし、命に関わります。

脳ヘルニアの発生する原因は、頭を強打してしまった場合や(外的原因によるヘルニア)脳内出血などの病気による場合(内的原因によるヘルニア)などがあります。脳ヘルニアとなると、症状としては、めまいや吐き気、けいれんや麻痺など身体的にも非常に大きな異常症状があらわれます。

ヘルニアの種類の中でももっとも恐ろしい種類のヘルニアということができます。

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まとめ:ヘルニアの種類はさまざま

以上、本文で述べましたヘルニアの意義や種類についてまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • ヘルニアとは、臓器等が本来あるべき場所から別の場所に移動してしまっている症状をさします。
  • ヘルニアの種類としては色々なものがありますが、一部を挙げると椎間板ヘルニア・頚椎ヘルニア・鼠径ヘルニア・食道裂孔ヘルニア・脳ヘルニアなどがあります。いずれも身体の部位が飛び出してしまっている状態です
  • ヘルニアの中でも、鼠径ヘルニアは放置しておくと生命に危険が生じることがあります。また、脳ヘルニアの場合、直接生命への危険が生じますので、すぐに病院での手術などが必要となります

このようにヘルニアの種類はさまざまです。「たかがヘルニア・されどヘルニア」であり、決して軽視をすることはできませんので、ヘルニアについて深い理解を持たれることが肝要ということができます。

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