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椎間板ヘルニアを治すために行われるリハビリの方法

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椎間板ヘルニアになると、手術などの対症療法を行います。しかし、原因を治さなければ再発を繰り返してしまい、なかなか根本から治したことにはなりません。そのため、ヘルニアになる原因を取り除いて、再発を防止する方法として、リハビリが行われます。

椎間板ヘルニアを治すために行われるリハビリの方法を紹介していきます。

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椎間板ヘルニアのリハビリについて

車いす

椎間板ヘルニアの症状から、痛みの激しい急性期を過ぎた辺りから、医師から腹筋と背筋を鍛えましょうと言われます。急性期には安静第一で、痛みをとることを最優先にしますので、筋肉がどうしても衰えてしまいます。そのため、急性期を過ぎたら、衰えた筋肉をカバーするためにリハビリを行います。

身体全体を使った寝返り

無茶なトレーニングをすると身体を壊してしまいますので、少しずつリハビリを始めます。最初は、身体全体を使っての寝返りから始めます。普通の寝返りでは上半身をねじってから、下半身が追いつくという動作ですが、上半身と下半身が同時に寝返りを打つことが出来るようにしましょう。普通の寝返りをすると、ヘルニアを悪化させる可能性がありますので、身体全体を使った寝返りをすることで、ヘルニアを悪化させないためのリハビリになります。医師に指導してもらい、腰に負担をかけない寝返りを覚えましょう。

上半身を起こす

上半身を起こすことができるようになったら、腹式呼吸を行ったり、ゆっくりと身体をねじったりするというような簡単なものを行いましょう。このときに、身体を反らして伸びると椎間板を圧迫してしまいますので避けましょう。特に、後ろに反る動作は危険です。

腹式呼吸では、腹腔内圧を鍛えることにより、腰周りを支えて安定させることができます。まず、両足を肩幅くらい広げて床の上にまっすぐ立ちます。次に、鼻から空気をゆっくり吸い込みながら、お腹を大きく膨らませていきます。そして、めいっぱいお腹を膨らませたら、最後に口からゆっくりとお腹に吸い込んだ空気を吐き出しながら、お腹をめいっぱいへこませていきます。この一連の動作を20セット、毎日朝昼晩行います。

立ち上がる

立ち上がる動作が辛いようであれば、腰痛バンドやさらしなどでサポートしながら行うのもいいでしょう。大切なのは、立ちあがるという動作です。一気に腰に負担がかからないように、台に手を付くなど、手の力を借りながら立ち上がりましょう。立ち上がってからも、前屈や後屈はしないでください。もし身体の筋を伸ばしたい時には、ゆっくり身体を左右にねじる動作の方がいいです。

歩く

転んでしまうと一大事になってしまいますので、ゆっくり足元を確認しながら歩くようにしましょう。辛いようなら無理はしないでください。合間を置いて繰り返すうちに、だんだん楽になっていきます。歩いていてどんどん辛くなるようなら、まだ歩くのは早いということです。このような時は腰痛ベルトなどでサポートしてもらった方が安心です。

軽く運動をする

散歩や体操など、軽い運動を無理のない程度に行いましょう。体操をする場合でも、よほど症状がよくなければ前屈や後屈の動きは避け、軽くねじるようなものを中心に行います。この時期になると、整体やカイロプラクティックなども効果があるかもしれません。

筋肉をつける

軽い運動ができるようになってから、やっと背筋や腹筋を意識したトレーニングを行うことができます。神経を傷つけてしまうとヘルニアが再発してしまいますので、必ず意識を集中して無理はしないようにしましょう。痛みを感じたら中断することが大切です。散歩や水中歩行など、身体に負担がかからないようなメニューをメインに行いましょう。

散歩は柔らかい場所を柔らかい靴で歩き、背骨に負担をかけないようにします。水中歩行は、体重を無視することができますので、非常にいいリハビリになります。ただし、泳ぐよりは水の中を歩く方がリハビリに適しています。

腰痛・ヘルニアが治った無痛療法の奇跡―医者もすすめる「理学整体」
酒井 和彦
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まとめ:リハビリとともに日常生活の改善も行おう

椎間板ヘルニアは完治するという可能性はあまり高くなく、ほとんどは治っていても頻繁に痛みを感じたり、鈍い感覚を残したりするなどの後遺症が残ります。それでも、リハビリを続けることで再発防止や症状の改善につながります。健康増進にもなりますから、リハビリはムダにはなりません。

リハビリとともに日常生活の改善を行うことも大切です。無理な姿勢を続けないとか、重いものをできるだけ持たないなど、日常生活の見直しや改善も立派なリハビリになります。このようなリハビリとアフターケアまでが椎間板ヘルニアの治療だと考えておくことが重要です。

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