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ダックスが椎間板ヘルニアになった時の治療法

犬横になる

犬の関節系の症状で最近増えているのが、椎間板ヘルニアです。特にダックスはその胴長短足の体型により、先天的に椎間板ヘルニアになりやすいと言われています。

ある日突然、愛犬のダックスがヘルニアになってしまったら動物病院に診てもらうと思いますが、どんな治療をされるのか不安になりますね。そこで、ダックスが椎間板ヘルニアになった時の治療法を紹介します。

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ダックスが椎間板ヘルニアになりやすい理由

犬

ダックスフントは、犬種として軟骨の変性が起こりやすい体質を持つ軟骨異栄養性犬種と言われています。この犬種は、椎間板の内部にある椎間板物質の変性が起こり、その結果椎間板ヘルニアになりやすいと言われています。そのため、ちょっとしたきっかけで椎間板ヘルニアを発症します。例えば、通常の散歩中やソファーからの飛び降りなどで下半身麻痺が起こることもあります。

椎間板ヘルニアは、衝撃を吸収するはずの椎間板物質が変性すると衝撃にもろくなり、椎間板物質がはみ出してしまいます。はみ出た椎間板物質は、そのすぐ上にある脊髄神経を圧迫して痛みや麻痺などの症状が現れます。

症状の段階

発症した場合には様子を見ないですぐに動物病院で診てもらいましょう。軽症の場合には内科治療で治ります。

椎間板ヘルニアは段階的に進行する病気です。その症状の段階について紹介します。

①段階1

キャンと泣いていたそうにしていたり、背中を丸めて震えていたりします。また、あまり歩きたがらないですが、歩こうと思えば歩くことができます。内科治療でも外科手術でも100%回復します。

②段階2

歩くことはできますが、つま先をすって歩きたり、足が突っ張ったロボットのような歩き方をしたりします。内科治療では84%、外科手術では100%回復します。

③段階3

背中を丸めて前足だけで歩いていたり、足を交差してくにゃくにゃ腰を振って歩いたりします。お尻の皮膚をつねっても反応しなくなります。内科治療では100%、外科手術では95%回復します。

④段階4

後ろ足が全く動かず前に伸ばしたままになります。また、その場でおしっこをしてしまう状態になります。指先の痛みは感じられます。内科治療は50%、外科手術では90%回復します。

⑤段階5

後ろ足は全く動かず、指先をつねっても足を引っ込めるだけで、痛みを感じていない状態です。内科治療では7%、外科手術では50%回復します。ただし24時間以内の治療の場合です。

治療方法

治療方法は、症状の段階によって治療方法が決まります。軽症の場合には内科治療で十分なので通常手術は必要ありません。また、本来手術すべき重症のケースなのに、内科治療を施して治る時期を逃してしまうことがないようにしなければなりません。そのため、症状の段階をしっかりと見極めて、内科治療と外科手術をバランスよく実施することで動物にかける負担を減らします。

①内科治療

安静が非常に大切ですので、家の中を自由に歩かせず、ジャンプができない高さの屋根を付けた狭いサークルに入れておきましょう。家の中で安静にできない場合は入院して安静にします。安静ができないと悪化する危険性がありますので注意しましょう。

痛みが強い場合には、補助的にレーザー治療を行います。レーザーの温熱治療は痛みを和らげて神経の回復を促すことができます。痛みが強く、軽症の時には積極的に用います。

内科治療は基本的に段階1~3までの治療法と考えます。段階4では内科治療の反応率が約50%、レーザー治療などをするともう少し改善率が上がりますが、回復まで1~3か月ほどかかってしまいます。もし、内科治療に反応がなければ、手術をしても手遅れになっているかもしれません。

②外科手術

段階4~5については外科手術を勧められます。外科手術は、片側椎弓切除という術式を行います。だいたい1時間程度の麻酔で手術が終わります。まず、手術の前にCTで場所と程度の確認をしてから手術を行います。内科治療よりも改善程度がよく、回復までの時間も短いのが特徴です。段階5の場合には回復まで2~3か月かかることもありますが、70~80%は歩けるようになります。

入院はだいたい一週間必要です。退院する時にはコルセットを着せます。退院翌日から腰のふらつきを防ぐコルセットを着けて自宅でリハビリトレーニングを開始します。コルセットでの積極的なリハビリを行うことで早期に歩けるようになります。

絶対に見逃すな! 犬の症状これだけは! 獣医さんにすぐ伝わる「ワンコ手帳」のススメ (impress QuickBooks)
インプレスコミュニケーションズ (2013-07-11)
売り上げランキング: 38,579

まとめ:様子がおかしいと思ったら、すぐに病院で診てもらおう

ダックスの椎間板ヘルニアは、早期発見によって軽症で抑えることができ、早期回復することができます。そのため、しばらく家で様子を見てから動物病院に行こうという悠長な時間は不要です。

歩きたがらないなど、様子がおかしいと思ったらすぐに病院で診てもらい、適切な治療をしてもらいましょう。

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