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仕事で頭を使って考える男
仕事で頭を使って考える男

偏頭痛の際に起きる前兆と対策は

頭を使って考える男

偏頭痛をお持ちの方は、偏頭痛の前兆と予兆をしっかりと把握して早めに対策をすることがポイントとなります。偏頭痛をお持ちの方の約20パーセントが閃輝暗点などと呼ばれる偏頭痛の前兆を感じます。また、約50パーセントの方が偏頭痛の予兆を感じます。これらの偏頭痛の前兆・予兆を感じたら素早く偏頭痛の対策を取られることが重要となってきます。

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つらい偏頭痛と前兆

偏頭痛の女性

偏頭痛は、日本人の約8パーセントが持っている頭痛と言われます。頭痛というと偏頭痛を思い起こされる方がおられるほど、偏頭痛はポピュラーな頭痛となっています。
偏頭痛持ちの方にとっては、偏頭痛を持っていない人を「うらやましい」と感じられるほどつらい症状です。頭部側面のズキンズキンとした痛みや吐き気などが3日程度も続くことがあります。

また、(よほどひどい場合であれば別として)一般的に頭痛は症状が軽いものと考えられがちであり、偏頭痛の発作があっても仕事や学校などを休むことは難しいのが実際です。偏頭痛の際にテストなどがある際には結果にダイレクトに影響してしまうこともありえます。

偏頭痛は、原因が完全には解明されていないため、治療方法は根治的なものではなく対症療法的なものとなります。そのため、偏頭痛による社会生活への害を回避するためには、偏頭痛の前兆を把握して、前兆を感じた時点で対処をされることが重要となります。
また、事前に予防をすることも重要です。

偏頭痛の前兆

偏頭痛をお持ちの方は、約2割程度の方が偏頭痛が生じる前に偏頭痛特有の前兆を感じる
ことがあると言われます。偏頭痛の前兆の時点では、一般に偏頭痛の痛み、辛さはまだ生じていませんので、前兆を感じた時点で対処をすることが効果的ということができます。

偏頭痛の前兆としては、視覚の障害が生じます。具体的には、偏頭痛の前兆としては、目の前に尖った光が見える症状が生じます。目の前がジグザグ、ギザギザと光が移動します。これを偏頭痛の前兆の症状として、「閃輝暗点」(せんきあんてん)と呼びます。閃輝暗点の前兆として見える光のタイプは人によって様々と言われます。例えば、フラッシュをたいたように全面が光で包まれるタイプもあります。

また、ステンドグラスのような綺麗な光が見えることもあります。しかし、いずれもつらい偏頭痛の前兆として閃輝暗点が生じた場合には来るべき偏頭痛に対処しなければなりません。閃輝暗点以外にも偏頭痛の前兆はあります。例えば、半盲と呼ばれる視野が欠ける状態が前兆として生じることもあります。閃輝暗点や半盲などの前兆の後おおむね1時間以内に偏頭痛が生じます。

このようにして偏頭痛の前兆を感じた場合には早急に偏頭痛の対処(主として薬物の服用)をすることが必要となります。

なお、偏頭痛の前兆と区別されるものとして偏頭痛の予兆があります。偏頭痛の予兆は、主として体調の変化として生じます。例えば、気分が落ち着かない、イライラする、どうにもお腹がすいた気持ちになる、急に甘いものが食べたくなる、体のむくみが生じるなどの精神的な変調が生じます。偏頭痛の前兆のように明確な視覚障害などではなく、気分の変動として現れるのが予兆の特徴です。

偏頭痛の前兆は、約20パーセント程度の方しか生じないとされますが、予兆の場合には
約50パーセントの方が生じるとされます。また、前兆とは異なり偏頭痛発作の1日前など比較的時間的な感覚を置いて生じるのが前兆との大きな違いです。そのため、偏頭痛の予兆を感じた際には、偏頭痛の予防薬を飲むなど対策をとるための時間的余裕が比較的取りやすくなるのが特徴です。

ただし、偏頭痛の前兆とは異なり、予兆は精神的な変化が中心なので偏頭痛の予兆と気づかない場合があります。

偏頭痛の治療

偏頭痛発作が起きる前の治療方法としては薬物で偏頭痛の痛み、発生を抑えるため予防療法と言われる対処法が取られることとなります。偏頭痛の苦しみ・痛みをなるべく味わずとも良いように偏頭痛の前兆、予兆を察知してなるべく早く予防療法を中心として偏頭痛が生じないようにしたいものです。

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まとめ:偏頭痛の前兆・予兆について

以上、本文で述べました偏頭痛の前兆や予兆についてのポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 偏頭痛をお持ちの方のうち、約20パーセント程度の方は偏頭痛の全長を感じます。偏頭痛の前兆としては、閃輝暗点と呼ばれる、眼前に光が見える症状が典型的な症状となります。偏頭痛の前兆が生じてから1時間以内程度のうちに本格的な偏頭痛の痛みが生じてきます
  • 偏頭痛の前兆と明確に区別されるものとして偏頭痛の予兆があります。偏頭痛の予兆は、前兆とは異なり精神的な変化が中心症状です。例えば、気分のいらだちや空腹感などといった症状が生じます。予兆は感じてから偏頭痛が生じるまで1日程度はありますので、予兆をしっかりと察知して早めに対策をとることが偏頭痛発作による辛さを防止するためのコツとなります

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