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偏頭痛の女性
偏頭痛の女性

早く止めたい偏頭痛の治療のポイントについて

偏頭痛の女性

偏頭痛の治療方法としては、薬物による治療方法が中心となります。偏頭痛は血管の拡張により頭痛が生じるために、血管の拡張を防止するなどのために薬物を用いて治療することが中心となるためです。ただ、偏頭痛防止のために薬を服用しすぎてしまうと、薬物乱用頭痛などといった、偏頭痛とは別の頭痛が生じる可能性があるのでこの点にも注意が必要となります。

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800万人が悩んでいる偏頭痛

偏頭痛に悩む女性

偏頭痛は、頭の側面が痛くなるタイプの頭痛です。文字からは、頭の一側面だけが痛むようなイメージがありますが、実際には偏頭痛の場合、頭の両面が痛むことが多いのが特徴です。偏頭痛で悩まれている方は日本人の場合、全人口の約8パーセントと言われます。実に約800万人の日本人が偏頭痛で悩まされていることとなります。このような偏頭痛の治療方法としてはどのような方法があるのでしょうか。

偏頭痛の治療の中心は薬剤投与

偏頭痛の治療方法は薬剤の投与が中心となります。偏頭痛が起きる原因についてはまだ完全には解明されてはいないものの、血管の拡張により偏頭痛が起きることが指摘されています。そして血管の拡張を自らの意思やなどで左右することはできないので、偏頭痛の治療方法としては役剤の投与を行うことが中心となります。

薬剤を用いた偏頭痛に対する具体的な治療方法としては、大きく分けて2つの治療タイプに分かれます。1つの偏頭痛治療方法としては、偏頭痛が起きてしまった場合にその偏頭痛を抑えるという治療方法です。これを頓挫療法などと呼びます。つまり、偏頭痛の痛みが起きた際にその痛みを止めるという治療方法が頓挫療法です。

一方で、偏頭痛の発生を予防するという治療方法もあります。つまり、薬剤の投与により、
偏頭痛を起きないようにするないしは偏頭痛が起きることを可能な限り抑えるという治療方法です。このような治療方法は、予防療法と呼ばれます。いずれも偏頭痛の患者さんの偏頭痛のタイプや痛みが発生する頻度によって適切な治療方法が医師等により選ばれることとなります。

偏頭痛治療のためによく利用されている薬剤は、トリプタン系の薬剤です。2000年以降に日本でも使用が認められ、多くの偏頭痛治療に用いられています。トリプタン系薬剤は医師の処方だけではなく薬局でも販売されていますので、偏頭痛に詳しい薬剤師から処方を受けた場合が医師による処方よりも効く場合があることもあります。

このようにして偏頭痛の治療はトリプタン系薬剤その他の薬剤を投与するという治療方法が中心となることとなります。

偏頭痛治療のための薬剤服用の注意点

偏頭痛の解消(あるいは防止)のために薬剤を服用するとしても、服用の際には様々な点に注意しなくてはなりません。どんな良薬でも飲みすぎれば体に毒となります。これは偏頭痛の治療薬でも同じです。

トリプタン系薬剤は、偏頭痛に大きな効果があるとして広く用いられるようになりましたが、その一方で偏頭痛治療の薬剤の乱用、つまり、「飲みすぎ」が問題となってきています。偏頭痛を治療する薬剤の飲みすぎによってかえって偏頭痛とは別の頭痛が生じるという問題が生じてきています。この偏頭痛の治療のための薬の飲みすぎで生じる頭痛を「薬物乱用頭痛」と呼びます。

偏頭痛の痛みから解放されるトリプタン系薬剤の効果を求めすぎるあまりに生じてしまう
のが「薬物乱用頭痛」です。これを避けるためには、トリプタン系頭痛薬の投薬は1ヶ月で10日以内とすることが重要です。この限度を超えて偏頭痛解消のためにトリプタン系頭痛薬を飲むと治療がかえって逆効果となってしまうことがあります。

ただし、偏頭痛の中には特殊な偏頭痛で治療方法が特殊となるものもあります。この場合には1ヶ月で10回を超えて投薬を受けることも必要となります。特殊な偏頭痛か否かという判断は医師の判断によることとなります。そのため、偏頭痛の治療を本格的に行うためには、薬局だけではなく、やはり一度は医師の専門的な診察・治療を受けることがおすすめできます。

なお、偏頭痛は基本的には生命への影響などはありませんが、ごくまれに偏頭痛性脳梗塞などが生じる特殊な偏頭痛もあります。このような偏頭痛の治療のためには医師による治療が必要となることは当然となります。

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まとめ:偏頭痛の治療方法のまとめ

以上、本文で述べました偏頭痛の治療方法についてのポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 偏頭痛は、日本人の約8パーセントが持っている持病であり、約800万人の患者の方がおられると言われています
  • 偏頭痛の治療方法としては薬物による治療が中心となります。そして、薬物による治療は、偏頭痛による症状(痛み)を抑える頓挫療法と偏頭痛の発症を防止する予防療法とに分けることができます
  • 偏頭痛の治療のために、薬の服用が多くなりすぎると「薬物乱用頭痛」という、偏頭痛とは別の頭痛が生じる可能性がありえます。このような事態を防止するためには、トリプタン系薬剤の服用は原則として1ヶ月で10日以内とすることなどがポイントとなります

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