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頭痛おじさん
頭痛おじさん

若いからと安心できない!偏頭痛がおこす若年性脳梗塞とは?

頭痛おじさん

脳梗塞というと年配の人という印象があり、自分には関係ないと思っていませんか。

脳梗塞の中には若年性脳梗塞があり、偏頭痛と関係が深いといわれています。

いつもの偏頭痛だと思っていたら実は脳梗塞だった、という事例も確認されているように、私たちはあまり脳梗塞を身近なものだと思っていません。しかし、ときには命の危険もある脳梗塞。正しい知識を知り、先に備えるというのも大切ではないでしょうか。

そこで、本記事では偏頭痛と脳梗塞の関係、若年性脳梗塞の原因と対策をご紹介していきます。ぜひ、この記事を読んで、若年性脳梗塞についての知識を得てみませんか。

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偏頭痛と脳梗塞の関係

頭痛の男

脳梗塞というとどうしても高齢者に多いと思ってしまいがちですが、最近注目されているのが若年性脳梗塞。45歳以下でおこり、原因も従来から言われる高血圧や加齢ばかりではないことがわかっています。

若年性脳梗塞の要因の一つとされる偏頭痛は、脳の血流異常が痛みの原因です。急激な血流の拡張・収縮をくり返しおこす血流異常が脳の委縮や脳梗塞の因子になるのです。

偏頭痛を持っている人は脳梗塞を発症するリスクが2倍、チカチカした光が見える閃輝暗点の症状がみられる人は6倍といわれています。そのため、偏頭痛の痛み対策をしただけの対処療法では脳梗塞を防ぐことにはなりません。原因療法で偏頭痛対策をしていく必要性を感じます。

偏頭痛以外の若年性脳梗塞の原因

若年性脳梗塞は、生活習慣でおこりやすい従来の脳梗塞とは異なり、元来持っている体質や外的要因によるものが大きいでしょう。

偏頭痛以外での若年性脳梗塞の原因とされている症状を、下記にいくつか上げました。

  • 脳の血管の異常:もやもや病、脳動脈解離など
  • 免疫機能の異常:膠原病、血管炎、抗リン脂質抗体症候群など
  • 心臓の形態によるもの:奇異性脳塞栓症など

①脳の血管の異常

もやもや病
脳の血管は太いものから細いものまでさまざまです。特に毛細血管が拡張して網の目のようになるもやもや病は血管の破裂や詰まる危険が高く、脳梗塞のリスクが高いとされています。勢いよく息を吹いたときに一時的な手足の脱力感や意識障害が出るときは、脳の検査をしましょう。

脳動脈解離
若年性の脳卒中の10~25%を占める脳動脈解離は、脳動脈の内膜に亀裂が生じ血液が血管壁に入ることで血管壁が裂けることです。スポーツで首をひねったり、血管壁が弱い基礎疾患をもっている人がなりやすいでしょう。首や後頭部、顔面などに激しい痛みを感じた数日後に脳梗塞がおこる危険性があります。

②免疫機能の異常

膠原病・血管炎
免疫とは、体内にウイルスなどの異物が入ってきたときに、異物を排除するため防衛物質を出す機能のことです。しかし、膠原病はこの免疫機能が過剰に働きすぎて自分の臓器や組織を破壊してしまいます。女性に多くみられ、患部によっては血管炎やリウマチなどとも呼ばれます。

発熱、咳、関節痛、下痢、腹痛、手足の痛み、しびれ、倦怠感、湿疹が1ヶ月以上続くようなら一度診察を受けましょう。膠原病は、総合病院や膠原病内科、リウマチ内科で早期発見が可能です。

抗リン脂質抗体症候群
また、血液中に抗リン脂質抗体といわれる自己抗体ができて、血液が固まりやすくなる抗リン脂質抗体症候群は、足などに血栓ができやすくはれや痛みをともなうこともあります。

血栓が脳に移動すると脳梗塞を、心臓に移動すると心筋梗塞を、肺に移動すると呼吸不全をおこしやすくなります。女性には習慣性の流産の危険性もあります。血液検査でわかる病気なので、気になるようなら検査をしてみましょう。

③心臓の形態によるもの

奇異性脳塞栓症
成人の20%が残っているといわれる卵円孔が原因でおこります。心臓の左房と右房の間の穴(卵円孔)は成長すると閉じるようになっていますが、閉じずに残っていると、足などにできた血栓が脳に移動しておこります。

通常、血液は正常に流れていますが、スポーツをしたときや重いものを持ち上げるときなど何らかの負荷がかかったときに、下記に記す脳梗塞のサインのようなものが見られたら要注意です。ちなみに、エコー検査を受けることで卵円孔の有無を調べることができます。

脳梗塞のサイン

このようにさまざまな原因のある若年性脳梗塞ですが、高齢者に多い脳梗塞とは前兆も症状も同じです。こちらで脳梗塞の前兆を知り、早急な対処を心がけましょう。

脳梗塞の前兆は一過性脳虚血発作(TIA)と呼ばれ、一時的に症状が出ても数分で症状が消えることが特徴です。症状がすぐなくなったから脳梗塞ではないと安心してはいけません。

偏頭痛をはじめとしたこれらの疾患に次のような症状が出たときは脳梗塞を疑いましょう。

  • 片側のしびれや麻痺
  • 視界の異常
  • 頭痛
  • 言葉がうまく話せない
  • 物忘れがひどくなる
  • 手足に力が入らない

このような症状が現れたとき、違和感があるときは早急に病院へいきましょう。

特に偏頭痛は立っていられないほどの強い頭痛やめまいが定期的におこりやすいため、脳梗塞との違いが感じにくいでしょう。いつもの頭痛と痛み方が違う、言語障害がある、片側だけ違和感があるなどの症状があれば、偏頭痛以外の可能性も考えるべきです。

脳梗塞・心筋梗塞は予知できる
真島 康雄
幻冬舎
売り上げランキング: 81,413

まとめ:若年性脳梗塞は身近な存在です

偏頭痛などの特定の疾患をもっていなくても、40代の3人に1人が脳梗塞予備軍だといわれている現代。脳梗塞の知識を持ち、いざというときに適切な対処をすることが重症化を防ぐ最善の手立てではないでしょうか。

脳梗塞は毎日の生活習慣も関係するとされています。カロリーの高い食事や大量飲酒、煙草を控えて、規則的な生活、適度な運動を心がけましょう。

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Check Also

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授乳中に起こる頭痛の原因と対処法

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