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閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群とは?その原因や症状について

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閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は肥満が原因となり生じますので、最終的には生活習慣の改善による肥満解消が重要です。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の場合、脂肪が顎に堆積することで気道が狭くなり発生します。閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の治療は医学的な方法によることもできますが、根本的な原因は肥満体質にあるので、その解消を図ることが最も重要です。

本稿では、閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の症状や診断方法、治療のポイントなどについてまとめています。

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閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群とは

深夜

睡眠時無呼吸症候群は睡眠中に呼吸が停止してしまう疾患です。睡眠時無呼吸症候群に陥ってしまった場合には、昼間に疲れが取れない状態が続いたり、重賞になった場合には意識を喪失してしまう場合もあります。

睡眠時無呼吸症候群には、種類があり、中枢型(CSAS)と呼ばれるものと閉塞型(OSAS)があります。中枢型は、気道に関係がなく睡眠時無呼吸症候群が生じるものであるものに対して、閉塞型のもの(閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群)は主として肥満が原因となり、気道が狭くなったのが原因となります。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群発生の原因や危険性

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は以下のような原因で発生します。まず、肥満などが原因(まれに顎が小さいことが原因となる場合もあります)となり、睡眠時の気道が狭くなります。
そして狭くなった気道のために、呼吸がしにくくなり、症状がひどくなると窒息状態になります。この状態によって睡眠中に呼吸が停止します。これを一晩で数回繰り返します。このように閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は気道が狭くなってしまうのが原因です。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は睡眠中に症状が起こっているため、自分自身で症状を把握することはできません。しかし、起床時に頭痛がしたり、昼間に、頭がぼんやりしたり、敷を失うなどにより症状を自覚できることもあります。

しかし、意識喪失により閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群であることに気づいた際には既に重症で事故を引き起こしてしまう場合もあります。また、高血圧などの生活習慣病が併発している場合もあり、健康に大きな危害が生じる場合もあります。

このように閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は大変健康に対して悪影響を及ぼす状態ですので早めに医師の診断を受けて改善したい病気です。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は専門医による診断によって判断されます。閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断方法としては、具体的には以下のような方法によって診断されます。

睡眠ポリソムノグラフィーを利用した閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は睡眠中に起きるものですので、睡眠状態を見ることにより、診断をされます。具体的には、睡眠ポリソムノグラフィーという機械を体につけて、1泊2日で入院をします。

入院の間に、睡眠ポリソムノグラフィーによって睡眠中の脳波や呼吸、心電図などを調査します。器具の使用にあたっては、痛みなどは伴いません。この睡眠ポリソムノグラフィーにより、閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の判定を行います。

簡易型睡眠呼吸モニターを利用した閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断

睡眠ポリソムノグラフィーによる閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断は入院を伴いますので、入院が困難な方や行きつけの医院で入院設備が整っていない場合には活用することができません。そこで、体に器具を取り付け、自宅で睡眠中の状態をデータで取得するという方法による閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断方法もあります。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の治療方法

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の場合の治療の方法としては、医学的な方法と生活習慣の改善という方法による治療方法があります。

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の医学的治療

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群を医学的に治療する方法としては、鼻から空気を送り込み、気道を開かせるという方法による治療方法があります。この方法は通常CPAPと呼ばれます。CPAPによる閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の治療は、医学的な技術により気道を開かせて、いわば強制的に閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の症状を改善させるものですので、即効性があります。

しかし、根本的な閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の改善にはつながらないことが多いと言えます。閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の原因の多くは肥満による脂肪の堆積があるためです。

生活習慣の改善による閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の治療

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群を根本的に改善するためには、やはり減量などによって肥満状態の解消を図る必要があります。他にも、お酒やタバコを控えるということも重要です。閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の改善は健康状態の良化に努めるということが最終的には効果的といえます。生活習慣の改善は医師の指導のもとで行えば、効果的・計画的に改善することが期待できます。

ネルネル 21回用 (口閉じテープ)
三晴社 (2006-06-05)
売り上げランキング: 108

閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群についてのまとめ

以上述べました、閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群についてのポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群は主として肥満によって気道が狭くなることによって起こり、睡眠中の呼吸停止をもたらします。睡眠中のことであるため、閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の症状自体は認識できませんが、日中の集中力低下や意識障害などから閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群を把握することは可能です
  • 閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の診断は病院への宿泊を伴う方法とそうでない方法とがあります
  • 閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群の治療は医学的見地からの治療に加えて、生活習慣の改善によって行うことが重要です

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