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頭痛おじさん
頭痛おじさん

群発性頭痛のえぐられるようなすさまじい痛みとその処方薬

群発性頭痛のおじさん

群発性頭痛は目の奥が刃物でえぐられるような痛みを伴う非常に激しい頭痛です。群発性頭痛に対しては、根治的な治療法はないので、薬で痛みを事前に予防したり、その痛みを抑えることなどが対処法の中心となることになります。群発性頭痛に対してはどのような薬が効果があるのでしょうか。

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最高の痛みを伴う群発性頭痛

医者の男

頭痛は日本人には多いと言われます。通常、頭痛というと、頭の側面がずきんずきんと痛む偏頭痛や肩のこりなどによって発症する緊張型頭痛が一般的です。また、風邪の際にも頭痛が起きることがあります。

しかし、頭痛の中で「とてつもなく痛い」「おそろしい痛み」を発症させるタイプの頭痛が群発性頭痛という頭痛です。群発性頭痛は、一部で自殺頭痛などと呼ばれることがあります。群発性頭痛を患ってしまうとあまりの痛みに耐えかねて自殺してしまう人がいると言われることから、群発性頭痛は自殺頭痛などと一部で呼ばれることがあります。目の奥が刃物でえぐられるような痛みが生じます。

群発性頭痛は世界三大痛とも言われます。(他には尿路結石や心筋梗塞が挙げられます)

群発性頭痛のメカニズムは目の奥の神経が血管拡張によって圧迫されることにより生じますが、どうして群発性頭痛が発生するのかその原因は現在でも不明のままです。

このような「最高の痛み」を伴う群発性頭痛に対してはどのような薬で対処をするのでしょうか。

群発性頭痛の予防薬

群発性頭痛は、その痛みが発症してしまっては大変ですので、可能な限り、群発性頭痛の発作が生じないように予防薬を投与することが第一に行われます。

群発性頭痛の予防に効果があるとされた薬剤としてはカルシウム拮抗薬というものが効果があるとされます。カルシウム拮抗薬は、血管を収縮させる作用があり、血管が拡張して神経を圧迫することで激しい痛みが生じる群発性頭痛の発生予防のために効果があるとされます。

他にもセロトニン受容体作動薬という薬も群発性頭痛の予防のために使用されることがあります。このセロトニン受容体作動薬も血管の拡張を抑えます。また、神経の炎症が生じることを防止します。

群発性頭痛に対する頭痛薬の効果

次に、群発性頭痛の痛みが発症してしまった場合には、どのような薬を処方するのでしょうか。一般に頭痛というと、ロキソニンなどの頭痛薬を利用することが想定されるかもしれません。ロキソニンなどは通常の頭痛には大変効果があります。しかし、群発性頭痛に対しては、通常の頭痛薬はほぼ効果がありません。

群発性頭痛の痛みに対して効果がある薬としては、イミグランという薬剤を注射することが即効性があると言われます。自己注射器もあります。群発性頭痛のためにイミグランの注射は保険が適用されます。ただ、注射は手間がかかり常にするわけには行かない場合もあります。

そこで、イミグランの点鼻液も開発されています。イミグラン点鼻液を鼻から吸入することで群発性頭痛の痛みを比較的簡易に解消することができます。ただ、イミグラン点鼻液は保険の適用がありません。

群発性頭痛に対して効果があるとされる薬としては、他にもリドカインがあります。リドカインは本来は局所麻酔薬ですが群発性頭痛に対して効果があります。リドカインは全ての群発性頭痛に効果がある薬ではないものの、効果がある場合には数分で群発性頭痛の痛みが和らぎます。

これらのように群発性頭痛に対しては薬は特定のものしか効果があるということができるものがないというのが現状です。群発性頭痛の場合には、専門の医師に診断を受けて治療(医療機関での酸素吸入などの治療をします)を受けることに加えて、生活の中で痛みを生じさせないようにすることが大切ということができます。例えば、血管を拡張しますので、飲酒は決してしてはいけません。

群発性頭痛については、周囲の人の理解を得ることも大切でしょう。いかに苦しい痛みでも群発性頭痛の大変さ、つらさは周囲にはなかなか理解がされないものということができます。また、家族、知人などが群発性頭痛を発症してしまった場合には、理解を示し、具体的な配慮をしてあげるべきということができます。

群発性頭痛は薬や生活習慣によって予防をするとともに周囲の理解を得ることも非常に重要となります。

群発頭痛を治す (健康ライブラリー)
寺本 純
講談社
売り上げランキング: 294,493

まとめ:群発性頭痛と薬物療法のまとめ

以上、本文で述べました群発性頭痛やそれに対する薬物などによる治療のポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • 群発性頭痛は根本的な原因は不明であり、根治することは現時点ではできません。そのため、薬物などで群発性頭痛の発作が起きることを予防することが第一に行われることとなります。
  • 群発性頭痛を予防するための薬としては、カルシウム拮抗薬やセロトニン受容体作動薬が効果があると言われます。これらは血管の拡張を抑える効果があるためです
  • 群発性頭痛の発作に対してはイミグランの注射や点鼻液の利用が効果的です。またリドカインも効果があると言われます。また群発性頭痛に対しては周囲の理解を得ることも非常に重要と言えます

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