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ぎっくり腰はどこで治療する?整形外科での治療方法

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急に腰に強い痛みを感じて動けなくなり、いわゆるぎっくり腰になったら、どこで治療してもらいますか。初めてぎっくり腰になった時は特に、ぎっくり腰はどこで治療してもらうものなのか分からないものです。ぱっと思いつくところでは、整形外科や整体、整骨院などがありますが、どんな治療が行われるのでしょうか。

今回は、整形外科でのぎっくり腰の治療方法を紹介します。整形外科にかかったことがないという人やぎっくり腰になってどこで診てもらえばいいか分からないという人は参考にしてみてください。

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整形外科とは?

医師

整形外科では、骨や筋肉など運動に関わる器官の治療を専門とする医療機関のことです。レントゲンや血液検査、尿検査などの検査方法で病気の原因を突き止め、薬などを使って身体に働き掛けるような治療を行います。医療行為は、このような病院でしか受けることができません。

ぎっくり腰になった際、痛みが激しくて自分ではどうしようもないという時や、他の症状もあって別の病気の疑いがある時には、整形外科を選ぶといいです。

ただし、ぎっくり腰にはまず安静にすることが一番の応急処置です。慌てて病院に行って無理をするよりも、少し痛みが落ち着いた時に診てもらい、適切な治療をしてもらうことをおすすめします。

整形外科での具体的な治療方法には大きく分けて2種類あり、保存的療法と外科的療法があります。

保存的療法

保存的療法は、骨そのものに手を加えずに治療をするという方法です。その中には、安静や理学療法、薬物療法、神経ブロック療法があります。

①安静

安静とは、じっと動かず楽な姿勢で休むことをいいます。ぎっくり腰には一番の治療になります。

②理学療法

理学療法には、牽引療法や運動療法、温熱療法、装具療法、電気療法があります。

牽引療法とは、骨盤を引っ張ることで、筋肉の緊張を和らげて神経周辺の血行を良くする治療法です。

運動療法とは、主に予防のための療法です。痛みが治まったタイミングで、筋肉トレーニングや腰痛体操などが行われます。

温熱療法とは、患部を温める補助的治療で、ホットパックや赤外線、超短波、超音波、マイクロウェーブなどがあります。これはぎっくり腰が完治したタイミングで行われます。急性の腰痛の場合には、まず冷やすのが基本です。

装具療法とは、ぎっくり腰の急性期にコルセットなどの装具を着用することで、腰椎の動きを抑制し、脊柱を安定させる治療法です。弱った筋肉や靭帯などを装具が補助して腰椎を支えますので、椎間板や関節痛の症状が軽減されます。

電気療法は、電気刺激を与えることによって、筋肉を軽く収縮させる治療法です。筋肉の緊張を緩めたり、血行を促進して回復させたりします。これも、ぎっくり腰が完治したタイミングで行われます。

③薬物療法

薬物療法とは、湿布や塗り薬などの外用薬や内服薬などを使って、筋肉の緊張を和らげたり、炎症を鎮めて症状を緩和したりする治療方法です。

④神経ブロック療法

神経ブロック療法とは、安静にしても、薬を飲んでも痛みが治まらない時に行われる治療法です。
痛みを感じる神経根に局所麻酔薬やステロイド剤などを注射して、痛みを遮断します。

外科的療法

外科的療法とは、手術を行って治療する方法です。
ぎっくり腰の場合、手術を行うことはほとんどありませんが、重症の椎間板ヘルニアや脊柱管狭窄症などの時は手術によって治療します。

方法としては、椎間板ヘルニア摘出術や椎弓切除術、脊柱固定術などがあります。最近では、最小侵襲手術という身体への負担を少なくする方法もあります。

病院で診てもらってもすぐに治るわけではない

ぎっくり腰を発症したばかりの時期では、患部を触ると痛いので、医師もなかなか診察がしづらく、硬直した身体では適切な治療が難しいものです。多くの場合、レントゲンでも腰の損傷部分は明らかに出来ないので、異常なしということで、鎮痛剤と湿布を処方されるだけとなります。

そのため、無理して病院に行くよりは、家で安静にしていた方がいいとも考えられます。

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まとめ:ぎっくり腰の痛みが強い時や、他の病気の疑いがある時は整形外科で診てもらおう

整形外科は医療行為ができますので、レントゲンの検査や投薬治療など病院でしかできないこともあります。ぎっくり腰の痛みが強い時や、他の病気の疑いがある時には、整形外科で診てもらうといいでしょう。

整形外科での治療方法は大きく分けて2種類があります。それは、保存的療法と外科的療法です。ぎっくり腰では、主に保存的療法が行われます。
ぎっくり腰初期では安静が一番の治療となり、患部を冷却することから始めます。痛みが和らいできたらタイミングを見て、温熱療法や電気療法、運動療法などが行われます。痛みがひどい時には、薬物療法や神経ブロック療法が行われることもあります。

自分の症状の様子を観察して、痛みがひどくて動くのがつらい時は無理をせず、少し痛みが落ち着いてから病院に行きましょう。

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