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ビジネスマン、仕事、考え中
ビジネスマン、仕事、考え中

ぎっくり腰の労災認定の原則と例外について

仕事中の男

仕事と腰痛に関するトラブルが増えてきています。特に、ぎっくり腰については腰痛として労災で認めてもらうことはできるのでしょうか。本稿ではぎっくり腰と労災の関係についてまとめていきたいと思います。

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ぎっくり腰で労災認定を受けるのは不可能?

腰痛の男

仕事に関して腰痛が大きな問題となってきています。つまり、腰痛に関して労災の適用がはたして認められるのかということが社会的に大きな問題となりつつあります。

労災といえば、かつては土木・建設事業などにおける事故・ケガなど、その後は過労死などがその適用対象となるかが問題となりました。労災の適用が問題となる事案はその時の社会の情勢によって大きく変わります。

しかし、土木・建設事業等では労災事故を防ぐためにさまざまな安全に対する配慮が行われるようになってきています。また、過労死についても、一度発生してしまえばその会社の信用性は「地に落ちる」事態となってしまうことから過剰な労働は控えられる傾向になりつつあります。

そして最近、労災事故としてクローズアップされつつあるのが腰痛です。長時間のデスクワーク、介護事業における抱き起こしの際などに腰を痛めてしまうことが非常に増えてきており、腰が痛いために病院での診察・治療を受ける際に腰痛が労災の適用対象とならないかが大きくクローズアップされるようになりました。

そして腰痛の中でも、労災認定が認められにくいものとして、いわゆるぎっくり腰があります。ぎっくり腰については労災の適用が認められることが少ないというのが現状です。ぎっくり腰は労災の適用対象として認められることが非常に難しいという状況にあります

ぎっくり腰が労災の対象とならないのは一体どうしてなのでしょうか.

ネックとなるのは業務起因性

ぎっくり腰が一般に労災の対象とならないのは、ぎっくり腰については、通常業務起因性がないという点が挙げられるためです。

労災の適用を受けるためには、その傷害等が「業務遂行と因果関係があること」が必要です。つまり、仕事に関連して疾病等が生じた場合でなくては労災は適用とならないということになります。

ぎっくり腰の場合、その発生原因は通常は日常動作の中で腰をひねるなどして生じるタイプの腰痛です。つまり、ぎっくり腰は仕事とは関係なく発生するものとして捉えられ、業務起因性が認められないのが通常です。そのため、ぎっくり腰の場合は労災保険適用の条件の一つである業務起因性が認められない結果、労災の対象とはならないことになります。

一般にぎっくり腰が労災の適用対象とならないことは厚生労働省のパンフレットでも記載されています。このようにしてぎっくり腰については一般には労災保険の適用対象から外れてしまうことになります。

個別の主張立証によりぎっくり腰であっても労災認定を

このようにぎっくり腰は、一般には労災の対象とならないのが原則です。しかし、ぎっくり腰が労災の対象とならないということはあくまでも一般論です。個別に現在生じたぎっくり腰が業務起因性があることを立証すれば、腰痛であっても労災保険の適用対象とすることは可能です。

厚生労働省のパンフレットにも、「(ぎっくり腰は原則として労災保険の適用対象とはならないものの)ただし、発症時の動作や姿勢の異常性などから、腰への強い力の作用があった場合には」労災として認められると記載されています。235

立証の困難性と労災認定の申請の難しさ

このように、「発症時の動作や姿勢の異常性などから、腰への強い力の作用があった場合」には例外的にぎっくり腰についても労災保険が適用となることになります。

しかし、ぎっくり腰が本当に業務に起因して発症したものであるかという点について証明することはとても難しいことということができるでしょう。また、仮に立証することができたとしても、会社内においてご自身の立場が悪化してしまうことも容易に推測することもできます。

このように、労災をぎっくり腰に対して適用を求めることは難しいというのが現状です。ぎっくり腰を原因として労災請求をされる場合には、会社を辞める覚悟も持って臨まれることが必要と言えるでしょう.

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まとめ:ぎっくり腰と労災認定と

以上、本文で述べましたぎっくり腰に関する労災認定についてポイントをまとめますと以下のようになります。

  • ぎっくり腰については原則として労災認定を求めることは難しいのが現状です。ぎっくり腰については業務起因性を立証することが困難であるためです
  • ぎっくり腰について業務起因性を認めさせて労災認定受けるためにはご自身でぎっくり腰と業務の間の因果関係を立証する必要があります。また、このような行為をされる場合には会社は辞める覚悟でチャレンジされることが必要となります

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