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しゃがむ女性
しゃがむ女性

最初の2分が大事!第一印象をめっちゃ良くする心理学ノウハウ

しゃがむ

「第一印象の良し悪しが、その後の関係を左右する─」。ビジネスの現場に身を置く方々ならば、身をもってこうした経験をしたことがありませんか? 第一印象が決まる時間は、6秒とも10秒とも、30秒ともいわれます。ある心理学者は、こう言い切ってもいます。

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「第一印象は2分で決まって、その後はもう変わらない。」

砂時計

このとき与えられた“イメージ”は、後々の関係にまで影響を及ぼしていきます。第一印象で、相手に「冷たい人」という印象をもたれると、その後、どんなことをしてもこの形容詞がついて回り、「言葉遣いはやさしいけれど、冷淡な人」「親身に話を聞いてくれるけど、薄情な人」などと、とかくネガティブなイメージに流されていきます。

その反対に、第一印象で「温かみのある人」という印象をもたれると、「口数は少ないけれど、優しげな人」「感情の起伏があるけれど、人間味のある人」と、何をしてもポジティブに解釈される傾向があるのです。

「初頭効果」の重要性

最初に与えられた印象が、その後にまで影響を及ぼすことを心理学的には「初頭効果」といいます。これをビジネスや対人関係で応用することができれば、とても効果的だと思いませんか? 初対面のときに、「誠実である」「信頼できる」という印象を与えることができたならば、その後の人間関係は格段にやりやすくなるはずです。

「メラビアンの法則」で好感度アップ

メラビアンの法則とは、アメリカの心理学者、アルバート・メラビアンが1971年に提唱しました。「7-38-55のルール」「3Vの法則」とも呼ばれます。

人の第一印象は、瞬間的に判断されます。その判断の割合は、外見(Visual)が55パーセント、話し方(Vocal)で38パーセント、話しの内容(Verbal)は7パーセントです。そして、相手を受け入れる前に4つの壁が存在し、これは対人関係の壁とも呼ばれています。

4つの壁とは

●第1の壁:外見(表情や、髪型、服装など)真っ先に判断されるのが外見です。「ボロは着てても心は錦」という言葉もありますが、いくら人間性がよくても初対面だと相手に受け入れてもらうのは困難になります。

●第2の壁:態度(立ち方、椅子の座り方など)例えば、猫背でトボトボと歩いているビジネスマンからは、全く覇気が感じられません。逆に背筋を伸ばして颯爽と歩くビジネスマンは、それだけでも仕事ができるように見えます。

●第3の壁:話し方(声の大きさ、言葉づかいなど)初対面にも関わらず、言葉づかいが悪いのは問題外です。人によっては、2度とあってくれなくなる可能性もあります。

●第4の壁:話しの内容(話しの構成など)自分よがりの内容になっていませんか?内容はきちんと伝わっているでしょうか。つまり、人は相手と話しをする前に、相手を判断してしまうのです。

見た目と言葉使いが最も第一印象を左右します。人に好かれる服装や言葉使いを研究しましょう。

「解放性の法則」で親近感を作る

怖そうな顔や、いかつい身体つきの場合、やはり視覚からくるイメージが先行し、第一印象を決定してしまう場合があります。そんなときは「解放性の法則」を利用しましょう。これは、人のプライベートな側面に触れた時に、親しみを感じるという特性をつかったものです。

とても怖いと思っていた人が、家族にはとても優しく接していたりすると、とたんに親近感が湧きませんか?強面な人のスマホに可愛いキャラクターがついていただけで、親しみを感じるという経験もあるでしょう。軽い悩みや打ち明け話をするのも効果的です。ただし、自慢話を聞いて喜ぶ人はいないので、決して自慢話をしてはいけません。

「アンカーリング」で印象づける

デパートや喫茶店のBGMで流れてきた音楽で、ふいに過去の記憶がよみがえってきたというような経験はありませんか?これをアンカーリングといい、過去の出来事で記憶に強く残ることをいいます。 この語源は、まさに船が停泊するときに海に投げ込むアンカーからきています。先ほどの経験だと音楽がアンカーになります。

ですので、相手に自分を印象付けたいときなどは、相手の5感を刺激するアンカーを使うとよいでしょう。一番効果的なのは香りです。特定の銘柄の香水をつける(通りすがりに軽く香るくらいに抑えましょう)と、その香水を宣伝しているのが、誠実そうな芸能人の場合はあなたにも誠実なイメージが抱かれやすくます。

出会いをドラマに変える2分の法則―第一印象の心理術
植木 理恵
東洋経済新報社
売り上げランキング: 76,311

まとめ

いかがですか。第一印象はとても重要です。最初の2分で全てが決まってしまうといっても過言ではありません。心理学の「初頭効果」「メラビアンの法則」「解放性の法則」「アンカーリング」を徹底的に研究して、「良い人」の印象を与えるように頑張って下さい。

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