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おじいちゃん、杖、高齢、老、ふろしき
おじいちゃん、杖、高齢、老、ふろしき

看護が必要な方も楽しめる足浴をサポートする方法

おじいちゃん

温泉設備だけではなく、最近では高速道路のインターチェンジなどにも設置されるようになってきた足湯。このような足だけや腕だけをつける入浴方法のことを「部分浴」といいます。

ヨーロッパでは非常にメジャーな入浴方法ですが日本では介護施設や老人ホームでもその絶大な効果が注目されています。

足浴は楽しいだけではなく、部分的にですが、洗浄効果もありますし、リラックス効果も絶大なものがあります。心臓や内臓が弱い高齢者でも比較的負担をかけずに入浴することができますし、発汗作用も期待できます。

しかしながら、実際に高齢者の肩を看護しながら足浴させるのは大変ですよね。

ここでは看護を通じて足浴をするための方法についてご紹介いたします。

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足浴の効能と準備

足浴の効果としては、以下のようなものがあります。

  • 清潔な環境を保持する
  • 末梢循環障害を防止し、末梢循環を促進させる
  • 血流障害を予防し、また血行改善する
  • 疼痛を和らげる
  • 入眠を促進させる
  • リラクゼーションする

こうしたものが特に寝たきりになってしまったような高齢者には難しいことはよく知られた事でしょう。看護が必要な老人に足浴をすることで、また看護師や医師にとっては様々なメリットがあります。細かく足を観察できたり、指導を行なったりまた、神経障害がある場合にはその感覚を学んでもらうことができます。

スキンシップをとる重要な機会でもありますね。

足湯をするための方法

足湯

足湯をするためにまずは準備が必要です。

足湯ができるバケツ(専門のものがよい)、15分ほど座れる椅子、ビニール袋、お湯(介護用であれば38度から40度がよいでしょう)、そして温度計、ガーゼを用意しましょう。

ついでに足もあらう場合には石鹸などを用意したほうがよいでしょう。

あとはタオル、そして保湿剤を用意しましょう。また、場合や室温によってはひざ掛けやタオルケットがあったほうがよいですね。

足浴の補助

足浴は「洗浄」「かけ湯」「拭き取り」の3つのプロセスを行います。全身浴とくらべても楽ではありますが、それぞれ介護者の動きやすさなどに応じて適切に補助しましょう。

まずは椅子に座らせることが必要ですが、この動作に負担を感じる方もいます。肘掛けがあるタイプの椅子のほうがよいですね。リクライニングチェアは負担になることがありますので、通常の腰掛け椅子のほうがよいでしょう。

かけ湯

足の爪が伸びている時には切ってあげましょう。先に洗浄を行う場合もありますが、まずはゆっくりとかけ湯をしてあげます。少し熱いと感じられるかもしれませんので、ゆっくりつま先からお湯をかけてあげるとよいでしょう。

熱いと言われたら少し冷ましてあげましょう。もし十分低い温度のお湯でも「熱い」という場合、あるいは41,2度のお湯を熱くないと感じる場合には神経障害がある可能性があります。

洗浄

足を洗う場合には洗浄用に別のバケツを持っていたほうがよいかもしれません。足を洗う時には、介護者に神経障害があるかどうかに注意しましょう。

足を洗う時にかるく膝を曲げたほうが楽な人と、足を動かすと痛む人とがいます。この時に神経障害があるかどうかを簡単にみてあげることも重要です。

爪の間などにたまった汚れも柔らかい布で拭きとるようにしてあげることが重要です。洗浄は通常の石鹸で十分ですが、痛いところ、痒い所、つらいところなどがあるかどうかを丁寧に聞きながら行なってください。

また、外傷がある時には足浴を避けるようにしましょう。

拭き取り

10分から15分程度の足浴を行ったら、水滴を拭きとってあげましょう。
この時に、何も拭かれている感じがしない場合もあります。神経障害がある方はしびれを感じることもあるので、ここでも慎重に行うのがよいでしょう。

足湯の感想を聞く

意外と行われていないのが、この足湯」について感想を聞くことを忘れないようにしましょう。気持ちよかったと言ってくれる時が多いと思いますが、温度を感じない場合などもあります。

ここで、介護者の足の状態や神経の状態を知ることができるのです。

立ち上がる時には要注意です。足腰を痛めないように丁寧に移動させてあげましょう。

脚温器 ぽかぽか足湯
脚温器 ぽかぽか足湯

posted with amazlet at 14.01.04
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まとめ:足浴で介護者とのコミュニケーションを

足浴は高齢者の看護の上でも重要な行為です。全身浴が厳しい場合でも比較的容易に入ることができますし、足の洗浄を行うこともできるのです。

それと同時に、介護者の足の状態や神経障害の状態を知る上でも重要な働きがあります。介護者とのコミュニケーションをとるということもできるので、理想的な看護方法ですね。

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