Home / 育児・教育 / 赤ちゃん / はじめての発熱!赤ちゃんの発熱に冷静に対処するために知るべき4つのポイント
赤ちゃん
赤ちゃん

はじめての発熱!赤ちゃんの発熱に冷静に対処するために知るべき4つのポイント

赤ちゃん

赤ちゃんは6ヶ月頃になると、よく発熱するようになります。

赤ちゃんの発熱について理解し、対処方法や病院に連れて行く基準について理解しておくことで、冷静に対処することができます。

初めての育児の場合、このような情報を理解していないと、赤ちゃんが発熱した場合に非常に慌ててしまうこともあります。また、病院にかかる必要がある症状を見落とし、病状を悪化させてしまうこともあります。

そこで、本記事では赤ちゃんが発熱すると冷静に対処する方法についてご紹介していきます。これからお子さんが生まれてくる方や、現在赤ちゃんを育てているという方は、是非本記事を参考にして、赤ちゃんの発熱に対する理解を深めていって下さい。

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赤ちゃんの発熱について理解しておく重要性

赤ちゃんの発熱について理解を深めることは、「赤ちゃんの健康を守ること」にとって大切なことです。

生後6ヶ月頃を過ぎると、徐々に母親から受けていた免疫力が落ちていき、風邪や発疹などの症状が出やすくなります。

また、後述しますが、赤ちゃんの発熱には、温かく見守ってあげるべきものと、病院に連れて行くべきものがあります。全てを薬や病院による治療に頼っていては、赤ちゃん自身の免疫力が発達していきません。

また、病院に連れて行くべき症状を見落としては、赤ちゃんの健康を損ねてしまう場合もあります。

そのため、赤ちゃんの発熱について十分に理解し、正しい方法で育児することは、健康で元気な赤ちゃんに育てていく上で欠かせないことなのです。

赤ちゃんの発熱の対処方法

赤ちゃんの発熱に対して冷静に対処するためには、次の4つの点について十分に理解することが大切です。

  • 発熱した時に対応するための準備
  • 赤ちゃんが発熱する理由
  • 赤ちゃんを病院に連れて行く基準
  • 熱が出た時の対処方法

上記のポイントを理解することで、落ち着いて赤ちゃんの発熱に対処できるようになります。それでは、それぞれのポイントについて詳しく見ていきましょう。

普段の時に準備しておくこと

赤ちゃんの発熱に冷静に対処するためには、「発熱した時に必要なものを予め準備しておくこと」と「普段の平熱を計っておくこと」が大切です。

普段の平熱を知っておくことで、赤ちゃんの状態が通常時と比べてどの程度変化しているのかが分かります。そして、変化に気付いた時に、対処するだけの準備が整っていれば、慌てずに、落ち着いて対処できるようになります。

赤ちゃんの発熱に備えて準備しておくべきものには、次のものがあります。

  • 乳幼児用体温計:赤ちゃんは、体温計の汚染から感染をうけやすいため、家族のものとは別に用意しておくことが大切です。
  • イオン飲料:発熱時の水分補給用に「経口補水液」などのイオン飲料を用意しておきます。
  • 保冷剤:発熱時に利用できるように、冷凍庫で冷やしておき、赤ちゃんが発熱した際にはタオルなどで覆って水枕や氷枕などに利用します。
  • 加湿器:インフルエンザである場合、インフルエンザウイルスは湿度の高いところで長く生きられないため、加湿器を利用することが有効です。
  • 解熱剤:赤ちゃんの急な発熱対策
  • かかりつけの病院:いざという時に診てくれる病院を探しておきましょう。休日・夜間に発熱を起こす場合もあるので、その時間にかかることのできる病院を把握しておくことが大切です。

上記のものが今手元にない場合は、用意しておきましょう。また、赤ちゃんの発熱の程度を理解するためには、普段の平熱を知ることが必要です。一日の体温は時間帯によって上下動するため、平熱を知るためには次の4つの時間帯に体温を計っておくことが大切です。

  • 起床時
  • 午前中
  • 午後
  • 夜間

体温は、午前4時頃に最も低くなり、夕方頃に最も高くなります。上記の4つのポイントについて、それぞれ定期的に体温を計り、平熱を把握しておくようにしましょう。

発熱する理由

赤ちゃんの発熱は、「体内に入った細菌やウイルスと戦っていること」で生じます。

赤ちゃんは、この世界に生まれる前に、ウイルスなどから身を守るための抗体をお母さんからもらっています。

その抗体が新生児の時期の赤ちゃんを守ってくれます。そして、生後6ヶ月頃から徐々に抗体の力が弱まっていき、赤ちゃん自身の力でウイルスや細菌と戦い、免疫力をつけていくのです。

そのため、赤ちゃんは生後6ヶ月前後から発熱することが多くなるのです。そして、軽度の熱や症状であれば、それを赤ちゃん自身の力で治すことで、免疫力の強い健康な子供に成長していくことができるのです。

病院に連れて行く基準

赤ちゃん自身の力で発熱を治すことが大切ですが、一方で「病院に連れて行く必要がある状態」を見極めることも大切です。

風邪ウイルスなどであれば、赤ちゃん自身の力で抗体を作り出すことができますが、その他の重い症状の場合、免疫力の弱い赤ちゃんでは治せない場合があります。

赤ちゃんが発熱した場合には、次のような状態でないかを確認しましょう。

  • 生後3ヶ月未満の赤ちゃんで38℃以上の熱を出している
  • 突然38℃以上の発熱を出した
  • 元気がなく、体調が悪そうにしている
  • 呼吸を苦しそうにしている
  • 強い腹痛や頭痛、嘔吐などの症状が見られる
  • ひきつけが5分以上継続したり、5分の間に何度も繰り返している
  • 意識がない、またはもうろうとしている
  • 顔の血色が悪く、苦しんでいる

このような状態が確認できた場合には、かかりつけの病院に連れて行くようにしましょう。また、このような症状がなく、38℃未満の場合は、免疫力をつけるためにも、赤ちゃん自身の力で回復できるようにサポートしてあげることが大切です。

次の項で、赤ちゃんが発熱した場合の対処方法について見ていきましょう。

熱が出た時の対処方法

赤ちゃんが発熱し、病院に連れて行く状態でない場合は、「赤ちゃん自身がウイルスや細菌に打ち勝てるようにサポートしてあげること」が大切です。

生後6ヶ月以降は、お母さんからもらっていた抗体が徐々に低下していくため、細菌やウイルスが体内に入ると発熱をおこします。この発熱によって、自身の体内に抗体を作り、これを繰り返すことで免疫力がついていくのです。

しかし、発熱がおこった場合には、脱水症状などにもなりやすくなります。そのため、赤ちゃんの戦いをサポートしてあげることが大切になります。サポートには、次のことがあります。

  • 水分補給:準備しておいたイオン飲料を利用して、赤ちゃんの水分補給をするようにしましょう。おしっこの回数や量が減ってきたら水分不足のサインですので、こまめにチェックするようにしましょう。
  • 体温調節:寒気で震えたりした場合には、布団などで暖かくしてあげましょう。しかし赤ちゃんが発汗による体温調節機能がまだ十分に発達していないため、暖かくしすぎには十分注意が必要です。また、赤ちゃんの顔色が赤くなったり、発汗が見られる場合には、暖かすぎるサインですので、布団や服を一枚薄くしてあげたり、手足を布団から出してあげるようにしましょう。
  • 解熱剤:発熱によって食欲不振になっている場合には、解熱剤を利用して熱を下げてあげるようにしましょう。しかし、解熱剤は利用は赤ちゃんの成長にとっても良くないため、利用は最低限に、また必ず指定された時間の間隔を守るようにしましょう。
  • ひきつけの対処:ひきつけが起こったときには、嘔吐したものがノドに詰まってしまう可能性があります。そのため、赤ちゃんの体勢を横に向けて上げ、呼吸が楽にできるようにしてあげましょう。

これらのサポートをしてあげることで、赤ちゃん自身の力で細菌やウイルスに打ち勝ち、免疫力を上げていくことができます。是非落ち着いて、冷静に対処できるようにしましょう。

まとめ:

ここまでで、赤ちゃんの発熱に冷静に対処するために知るべき4つのポイントについてご紹介してきました。最後にもう一度、4つのポイントについて振り返りましょう。

  • 発熱した時に対応するための準備
  • 赤ちゃんが発熱する理由
  • 赤ちゃんを病院に連れて行く基準
  • 熱が出た時の対処方法

これらのポイントについて理解しておくことで、赤ちゃんの発熱に冷静に対処し、成長を助けてあげることができます。赤ちゃんが生まれてくる予定のある方や、現在育てているという方は、是非本記事を参考にして、赤ちゃんの発熱に対応できるように準備しておきましょう。

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