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赤ちゃんの手
赤ちゃんの手

赤ちゃんのむくみの原因とむくみを起こす2つの病気

赤ちゃんの手

赤ちゃんにもむくみが起こることをご存知でしょうか?生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんは内臓機能も十分に発達していません。そのため、むくみが起こってもおかしくないようです。とはいえ、大人のむくみに腎臓疾患による影響があるように、小さな赤ちゃんが起こすむくみにも様子によっては病気の可能性があるようです。赤ちゃんのむくみは保護者にしか対応できません。しっかりチェックするためにも、赤ちゃんのむくみが病気ではないか、確認するための3つのポイントをご紹介しましょう。

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赤ちゃんにむくみがおこる理由とは

赤ちゃん

生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんにむくみが起こるなんて…と思う人もいるかもしれません。実は、赤ちゃんは生まれたての頃に特にむくみが起こりやすくなります。

むくみというのは、血管やリンパ管の流れが悪く、代謝が低下した状態です。腎臓機能の低下や、栄養欠損による影響などがあると言われています。冷えやストレスなどで悪化しやすく、むくみがひどくなります。

生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんは腎臓機能が適応できないことでむくみが起こりやすくなります。腎臓機能の低下によって尿量が少なくなり、本来代謝すべき水分が体内に滞りがちです。また、母親の体内から生れ出ることはとても大変なことで、赤ちゃんにとってもストレスがかかっています。ストレス対処のために尿を出すのを抑えてしまう抗利尿ホルモン(ADH)が作用し、更に尿が出しにくくなっているのです。だんだんと、外との適応が進むにつれて、腎臓が働き始め、尿量が増えてくるとむくみは落ち着きます。

1歳未満の赤ちゃんにもむくみは起こる

生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんでなくとも、1歳未満の赤ちゃんにもむくみは起こるようです。例えば、離乳食を始めた赤ちゃんはむくみが起こりやすいかもしれません。というのも、赤ちゃんにとって初めて消化し代謝するような食品が体内に入れば、それだけで内臓に負担がかかります。生きるために必要な消化吸収排泄能力も、離乳食によって母乳やミルクと違う刺激が与えられます。濃い味付けや消化に時間がかかる食材などで、これまでにない腎臓への刺激があれば、利尿へ影響し、むくみが起こることが考えられるからです。また、大人同様に、赤ちゃんもストレスや疲れなどがあれば、内臓に影響します。赤ちゃんのむくみは、病気でない限り、歩き始めて運動量が増えるころには起こりにくくなるようです。

気になる赤ちゃんのむくみに病気の可能性を確認しよう

赤ちゃんのむくみは、よく観察していなければ気が付きにくいものです。赤ちゃんは水分そのものでとてもやわらかく、少しのむくみでは判断しにくいからです。とはいえ、病気の可能性を見逃して悪化させるのは避けたいものです。赤ちゃんのむくみが病気かどうか、確認する方法をご紹介しましょう。

赤ちゃんの全身に異常なむくみは腎臓疾患を疑う

赤ちゃんがひどく膨張して見え、顔を中心に全身がむくんでいたり、尿の回数が明らかに増えている場合は、急性腎炎やネフローゼ症候群の可能性があります。腎臓は老廃物をろ過して尿にする臓器ですが、障害が起こることで水分代謝の機能が落ちてしまいます。ネフローゼ症候群とは、腎臓障害によって水分代謝の働きがあるタンパク質が尿に出てしまい、むくんでしまう病気です。身体にとってとても負担が大きいために、泣くことも減りぐったりすることがあります。赤ちゃんのむくみをはじめとする衰弱した変化を感じたら、早めに受診することをお勧めします。

出生時に強いむくみが出る女性特有の病気 ターナー症候群

ターナー症候群とは、染色体異常による影響で低身長や性的発達が遅れやすくなるという女性特有の病気です。ターナー症候群の場合、生まれてすぐに手足に強いむくみがでます。この場合のむくみは、リンパ浮腫であり、すでに代謝に何らかの影響が出ていることがわかります。ターナー症候群の場合は、出生時すぐには判断されにくいため、2~3か月頃で発覚することがあるようです。すぐに命にかかわる病気ではありませんが、合併症の発生率が高いと言われており、早めの対策が必要になります。ターナー症候群の特徴としては、むくみの他、耳が突出している、指が短いなどがあるようです。赤ちゃんの時期には判断しにくい点もあるため、気になるむくみが続くようであれば、産院や近くの専門医に相談しましょう。

まとめ

赤ちゃんは全身のほとんどが水分であり、代謝が少し滞っただけでもむくみが起こります。しかし、病気の可能性がある時、そのむくみはひどく、その他の症状も多く出るようです。朝むくんでいても、午後になったらすっと引くようなむくみは特に問題がないようですが、ひどいむくみが1日以上続くのであれば、早めに病院での診察を行いましょう。

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Check Also

足のむくみをマッサージ

足の疲れとむくみの解消に効果的!簡単、速効性のある足枕

立ち仕事の方は、足のむくみに悩 …

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